The present study has evaluated the healing effects of extract of dried fruit pulp of Terminalia chebula (TCE) on acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats. TCE (600 mg/kg) showed healing effects against AA-induced colonic damage score and weight when administered orally daily for 14 days. TCE was further studied for its effects on various physical (mucus/blood in stool and stool frequency, food and water intake and body weight changes), histology, antibacterial activity and free radicals (NO and LPO), antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) and myeloperoxidase in colonic tissue.
The present investigation dealt with the effect of simultaneous administration of flumazenil on the hypnotic activity of propofol using a behavioral model of ddY mice. The mixed solution of propofol and flumazenil was administered intravenously into the mice tail vein and the achievement of hypnosis was defined as the loss of the righting reflex. Flumazenil 0.2 mg.kg-1 significantly decreased the required dose of propofol for hypnosis (8.43 +/- 0.46 mg.kg-1) compared to the control group (10.55 +/- 0.55 mg.kg-1).
Preliminary pharmacological studies were performed on the methanol extract of Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae) leaves to investigate neuropharmacological, anticonvulsant, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal activity and effect on gastrointestinal motility. All studies were conducted in mice using doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight. In the pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis test, the extract statistically reduced the time for the onset of sleep at 500 mg/kg dose and (dose-dependently) increased the total sleeping time at 250 and 500 mg/kg dose.
In the present study, we investigated the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified sevoflurane. A mouse model of hypnosis and analgesia was established by an intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injection of emulsified sevoflurane.We intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) administered YM-31636, a 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, to mice and observed sleep time during hypnosis.
In this study the antinociceptive and the gastroprotective effects of orally administered or inhaled Lavandula hybrida Reverchon "Grosso" essential oil, and its principal constituents linalool and linalyl acetate were evaluated in rodents. Either when orally administered (100 mg/kg) or inhaled for 60 min lavender essential oil significantly reduced the acetic acid-writhing response in a naloxone-sensitive manner.
The seeds of Alangium salvifolium Linn. have been traditionally reported to exhibit a variety of biological activities, including antidiabetic, anticancer, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, laxative, and antiepileptic activities. The objective of this study was to verify the traditional claims and to evaluate the seeds of Alangium salvifolium in various organic extracts to screen the antidiabetic, antiepileptic, analgesic and antiinflammatory activities.
Embelin, a p-quinone, is derived from Embelia ribes Burm. The analgesic effect of potassium embelate has been studied in rats and mice. The test drug was found to be effective by oral, i.m. and i.c.v. routes and the results compared well with morphine. Although potassium embelate acts centrally to produce analgesia, its effect is not antagonized by naloxone indicating a different central site of action. There is no precipitation of abstinence syndrome as observed with morphine. Peripheral site of action of the drug is ruled out as it lacks any demonstrable anti-inflammatory action.
Muktashukti bhasma (MSB), an Ayurvedic compound, consisting of pearl, Aloe vera and vinegar, inhibited acute and subacute inflammation in albino rats as induced by subplanter injection of carrageenan, histamine, 5-HT, nystatin and subcutaneous implant of cotton pellets. In all the test procedures the antiinflammatory response of 1000 mg/kg MSB was comparable to the response observed with 300 mg/kg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Oral premedication with MSB delayed castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats, indicating its prostaglandin inhibitory activity.
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Bacopa monniera Wettst. (BM, syn. Herpestis monniera L; Scrophulariaceae), is an Ayurvedic drug used as a rasayana. Its fresh juice was earlier reported to have significant antiulcerogenic activity. In continuation, methanolic extract of BM (BME) standardized to bacoside-A content (percentage-38.0 +/- 0.9), when given in the dose of 10-50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days, showed dose-dependent anti-ulcerogenic on various gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol, aspirin, 2 h cold restraint stress and 4 h pylorus ligation.
A variety of analgesics are used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain in different disease states. A narcotic or a non-narcotic analgesic that does not cause respiratory depression and addiction is needed. In Ayurveda a large number of indigenous drugs have been mentioned possessing analgesic properties (e.g. Guggul, Erand, Rasna, Bhringaraj, Methika, Palandu and Prasikayavani).