Acetylcysteine

Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of autophagy increases the lifespan of organisms from yeast to flies. In contrast to the lifespan extension effect in lower organisms, it has been reported that overexpression of unc-51-like kinase 3 (ULK3), the mammalian homolog of autophagy-specific gene 1 (ATG1), induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts. Therefore, we assessed whether the activation of autophagy would genuinely induce premature senescence in human cells.

Author(s): 
Kang, Hyun Tae
Lee, Ki Baek
Kim, Sung Young
Choi, Hae Ri
Park, Sang Chul
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder has a high co-occurrence with substance use disorders, but the pathophysiological mechanisms have not been adequately explored. AIMS: To review the role of stress in the onset and recurrence of affective episodes and substance misuse. METHOD: We review the mechanisms involved in sensitisation (increased responsivity) to recurrence of stressors, mood episodes and cocaine use.

Author(s): 
Post, Robert M.
Kalivas, Peter
Publication Title: 
The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

One hundred and eight patients with severe falciparum malaria underwent a placebo controlled trial with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), as an adjunctive therapy along with standard intravenous artesunate therapy. Three NAC dosage regimens were used: an intravenous loading dose of 140 mg/kg followed by 70 mg/kg every four hours intravenously for up to 18 doses (Group 1); a single intravenous loading dose followed by oral NAC in the same amount as for Group 1 (Group 2); a regimen identical to Group 1 except that oral NAC was administered after the first 24 hours (Group 3).

Author(s): 
Treeprasertsuk, Sombat
Krudsood, Srivicha
Tosukhowong, Thanawat
Maek-A-Nantawat, Wirach
Vannaphan, Suparp
Saengnetswang, Tosaporn
Looareesuwan, Sornchai
Kuhn, Walter F.
Brittenham, Gary
Carroll, James
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: A major obstacle for successful cancer treatment often is the development of drug resistance in cancer cells during chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel drugs with improved efficacy against tumor cells and with less toxicity on normal cells. Artesunate (ART), a powerful anti-malarial herbal compound, has been shown to inhibit growth of various tumor cell lines in vitro and of xenografted Kaposi's sarcoma in mice in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ART exerts its cytotoxicity have not been elucidated.

Author(s): 
Efferth, Thomas
Giaisi, Marco
Merling, Annette
Krammer, Peter H.
Li-Weber, Min
Publication Title: 
Critical Care Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Markers of oxidative stress are reported to be increased in severe malaria. It has been suggested that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in treatment. We studied the efficacy and safety of parenteral NAC as an adjunct to artesunate treatment of severe falciparum malaria. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the use of high-dose intravenous NAC as adjunctive treatment to artesunate. SETTING: A provincial hospital in Western Thailand and a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Author(s): 
Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew
Abul Faiz, M.
Ruangveerayut, Ronnatrai
Maude, Richard J.
Rahman, M. Ridwanur
Roberts, L. Jackson
Moore, Kevin
Bin Yunus, Emran
Hoque, M. Gofranul
Hasan, Mahatab Uddin
Lee, Sue J.
Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon
Newton, Paul N.
White, Nicholas J.
Day, Nicholas P. J.
Dondorp, Arjen M.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer

Analogs of the malaria therapeutic, artemisinin, possess in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. In this study, two dimeric artemisinins (NSC724910 and 735847) were studied to determine their mechanism of action. Dimers were >1,000 fold more active than monomer and treatment was associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis induction. Dimer activity was inhibited by the antioxidant L-NAC, the iron chelator desferroxamine and exogenous hemin.

Author(s): 
Stockwin, Luke H.
Han, Bingnan
Yu, Sherry X.
Hollingshead, Melinda G.
Elsohly, Mahmoud A.
Gul, Waseem
Slade, Desmond
Galal, Ahmed M.
Newton, Dianne L.
Bumke, Maja A.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Pediatrics

We present a 15-month-old boy who developed fulminant hepatic failure after ingesting 10 ml of clove oil. After 24 h, the ALT level was in excess of 13,000 U/l, with blood urea and creatinine of 11.8 mmol and 134 micromol/l respectively. The hepatic impairment resolved after intravenous administration of N-acetylcysteine so that 6 h later, the ALT level was approximately 10,000 U/l. His liver synthetic function and clinical status improved over the next 4 days. This is the first such case report of its kind in Europe.

Author(s): 
Janes, Simon E. J.
Price, Caroline S. G.
Thomas, David
Publication Title: 
Journal of General Internal Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common cause of acute renal failure in hospitalized patients. Although patients are often given N-acetylcysteine to prevent renal injury from contrast agents, there are no clear guidelines supporting its use. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether administering N-acetylcysteine around the time of contrast administration reduces the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy.

Author(s): 
Liu, Raymond
Nair, Deepu
Ix, Joachim
Moore, Dan H.
Bent, Stephen
Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

The major tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), inhibits carcinogenesis in many in vivo models. Many potential mechanisms of action have been proposed based on cell line studies, including prooxidant activity. In the present study, we studied the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the inhibitory effects of EGCG on lung cancer cell growth. We found that NAC (0-2 mM) dose dependently enhanced the growth inhibitory activity of EGCG against murine and human lung cancer cells.

Author(s): 
Lambert, Joshua D.
Sang, Shengmin
Yang, Chung S.
Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

Apigenin, a plant flavone, potentially activates wild-type p53 and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. We conducted detailed studies to understand its mechanism of action. Exposure of human prostate cancer 22Rv1 cells, harboring wild-type p53, to growth-suppressive concentrations (10-80 microM) of apigenin resulted in the stabilization of p53 by phosphorylation on critical serine sites, p14ARF-mediated downregulation of MDM2 protein, inhibition of NF-kappaB/p65 transcriptional activity, and induction of p21/WAF-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Shukla, Sanjeev
Gupta, Sanjay

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Acetylcysteine