Acetylcysteine

Publication Title: 
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985)

Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been found to protect brain from ischemic injury. We investigated whether IH mitigates brain oxidative stress and behavioral deficits in rats subjected to ethanol intoxication and abrupt ethanol withdrawal (EW). The effects of IH on overt EW behavioral signs, superoxide generation, protein oxidation, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) opening were examined. Male rats consumed dextrin or 6.5% (wt/vol) ethanol for 35 days.

Author(s): 
Jung, Marianna E.
Simpkins, James W.
Wilson, Andrew M.
Downey, H. Fred
Mallet, Robert T.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Letters

Ginsenosides are the main bioactive components in American ginseng, a commonly used herb. In this study, we showed that the ginsenoside Rh2 exhibited significantly more potent cell death activity than the ginsenoside Rg3 in HCT116 and SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Cell death induced by Rh2 is mediated in part by the caspase-dependent apoptosis and in part by the caspase-independent paraptosis, a type of cell death that is characterized by the accumulation of cytoplasmic vacuoles.

Author(s): 
Li, Binghui
Zhao, Jiong
Wang, Chong-Zhi
Searle, Jennifer
He, Tong-Chuan
Yuan, Chun-Su
Du, Wei
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus promotes oxidative stress in endothelial cells, which contributes to development of cardiovascular diseases. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor activated by oxidative stress that regulates expression of numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying and antioxidant genes. This study was designed to elucidate the homeostatic role of adaptive induction of Nrf2-driven free radical detoxification mechanisms in endothelial protection under diabetic conditions.

Author(s): 
Ungvari, Zoltan
Bailey-Downs, Lora
Gautam, Tripti
Jimenez, Rosario
Losonczy, Gyorgy
Zhang, Cuihua
Ballabh, Praveen
Recchia, Fabio A.
Wilkerson, Donald C.
Sonntag, William E.
Pearson, Kevin
de Cabo, Rafael
Csiszar, Anna
Publication Title: 
Trends in Molecular Medicine

Metabolism of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) influences the development of diverse pathologies. Hemolytic anemia due to deficiency of PPP enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is the most common genetic disease in humans. Recently, inactivation of another PPP enzyme, transaldolase (TAL), has been implicated in male infertility and fatty liver progressing to steatohepatitis and cancer. Hepatocarcinogenesis was associated with activation of aldose reductase and redox-sensitive transcription factors and prevented by N-acetylcysteine.

Author(s): 
Perl, Andras
Hanczko, Robert
Telarico, Tiffany
Oaks, Zachary
Landas, Steve
Publication Title: 
Arthritis and Rheumatism

OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients exhibit T cell dysfunction, which can be regulated through mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by glutathione (GSH). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to examine the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of the GSH precursor N-acetylcysteine (NAC). METHODS: A total of 36 SLE patients received either daily placebo or 1.2 gm, 2.4 gm, or 4.8 gm of NAC.

Author(s): 
Lai, Zhi-Wei
Hanczko, Robert
Bonilla, Eduardo
Caza, Tiffany N.
Clair, Brandon
Bartos, Adam
Miklossy, Gabriella
Jimah, John
Doherty, Edward
Tily, Hajra
Francis, Lisa
Garcia, Ricardo
Dawood, Maha
Yu, Jianghong
Ramos, Irene
Coman, Ioana
Faraone, Stephen V.
Phillips, Paul E.
Perl, Andras
Publication Title: 
Arthritis and Rheumatism

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may serve as a marker of neuropsychiatric disease and as a target for N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: The ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was used to assess 49 patients with SLE and 46 matched healthy control subjects. Twenty-four of the patients with SLE were randomized to receive either placebo, NAC at a dosage of 2.4 gm/day, or NAC at a dosage of 4.8 gm/day.

Author(s): 
Garcia, Ricardo J.
Francis, Lisa
Dawood, Maha
Lai, Zhi-Wei
Faraone, Stephen V.
Perl, Andras
Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

Catechol estrogens, especially 4-hydroxylated metabolites of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), are responsible for estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. 4-Hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE(2)), a major metabolite of E(2) formed preferentially by cytochrome P-450 1B1, is oxidized to E(2)-3,4-quinone, which can react with DNA to yield the depurinating adducts 4-OHE(2)-1-N3Ade and 4-OHE(2)-1-N7Gua. The apurinic sites generated by the loss of these depurinating adducts induce mutations that could lead to cancer initiation.

Author(s): 
Zahid, Muhammad
Saeed, Muhammad
Ali, Mohammed F.
Rogan, Eleanor G.
Cavalieri, Ercole L.
Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

Catechol estrogens, especially 4-hydroxylated metabolites of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), are responsible for estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. 4-Hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE(2)), a major metabolite of E(2) formed preferentially by cytochrome P-450 1B1, is oxidized to E(2)-3,4-quinone, which can react with DNA to yield the depurinating adducts 4-OHE(2)-1-N3Ade and 4-OHE(2)-1-N7Gua. The apurinic sites generated by the loss of these depurinating adducts induce mutations that could lead to cancer initiation.

Author(s): 
Zahid, Muhammad
Saeed, Muhammad
Ali, Mohammed F.
Rogan, Eleanor G.
Cavalieri, Ercole L.
Publication Title: 
Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic

Perennial allergic rhinitis is an IgE-mediated inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa characterized by paroxysms of sneezing, nasal congestion, pruritus, and rhinorrhea. The condition may be caused by certain environmental agents, food sensitivities, structural abnormalities, metabolic conditions, or synthetic drugs. Recent health impairment outcome studies on allergic rhinitis sufferers reveal a measurable decline in physical and mental health status and the inability to perform daily activities.

Author(s): 
Thornhill, S. M.
Kelly, A. M.
Publication Title: 
Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic

Perennial allergic rhinitis is an IgE-mediated inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa characterized by paroxysms of sneezing, nasal congestion, pruritus, and rhinorrhea. The condition may be caused by certain environmental agents, food sensitivities, structural abnormalities, metabolic conditions, or synthetic drugs. Recent health impairment outcome studies on allergic rhinitis sufferers reveal a measurable decline in physical and mental health status and the inability to perform daily activities.

Author(s): 
Thornhill, S. M.
Kelly, A. M.

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