CONTEXT: Primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPT) is one of the most common of all endocrine disorders. Eighty percent to 85% of cases are due to parathyroid adenomas while hyperplasia and carcinoma account for 10% to 15% and less than 1%, of cases, respectively. The past decade has witnessed remarkable advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of parathyroid hyperplasia and neoplasia. Additionally, imaging studies and the development of the intraoperative assay for parathyroid hormone have transformed the diagnosis and management of patients with these disorders.
C57BL/6J mice carrying the Min allele of Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) develop numerous adenomas along the entire length of the intestine and consequently die at an early age. This short lifespan would prevent the accumulation of somatic genetic mutations or epigenetic alterations necessary for tumor progression. To overcome this limitation, we generated F(1) Apc(Min/+) hybrids by crossing C57BR/cdcJ and SWR/J females to C57BL/6J Apc(Min/+) males. These hybrids developed few intestinal tumors and often lived longer than 1 year.
The experience of receiving a screen-detected diagnosis of colorectal cancer was explored using open-ended interviews. Twenty four people who had been diagnosed with cancer at flexible sigmoidoscopy screening were interviewed at their homes over the telephone. Thematic analysis of the transcripts showed that the experience of gaining a diagnosis of cancer through screening was characterised by a lack of prior expectation that cancer would be detected and feelings of shock. This was largely because of the absence of symptoms and current feelings of well-being.
Celecoxib (C), a COX-2 enzyme inhibitor, was administered at a 0.1% dose level in the diet of female Swiss Webster CFW outbred mice for life. The mice also received 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DMH) as 10 weekly subcutaneous injections at 20 microg/g body weight. The number of animals with large intestinal cancer and the total number of these cancers were 30 and 321 in the 1,2-DMH-treated group, while the corresponding figures in the C and 1,2-DMH-treated group were 29 and 156. This difference is statistically highly significant.
VPS, a hot water extract of the Coriolus versicolor mushroom, was given at a 2% dose level in the diet of female Swiss Webster CFW outbred mice in a serial sacrifice experiment. The mice were also administered either 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DMH) as ten weekly subcutaneous (s.c) injections of 20 microg/g body weight or physiological saline (PS) as ten weekly (s.c) injections of 0.01 ml/g body weight. The animals were sacrificed at 26 weeks or 35 weeks after the first injection of 1,2-DMH or PS.
In this serial sacrifice experiment, celecoxib (C) was administered at a 0.1% dose level, in the diet of female Swiss Webster CFW outbred mice. The animals also received either 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DMH) as ten weekly subcutaneous (s.c.) injections at 20 microg/g body weight or physiological saline (PS) as ten weekly s.c. injections at 0.01 ml/g body weight. Subsequently, the mice were sacrificed at 26 weeks or 35 weeks after the first injection of 1,2-DMH or PS.
The Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Trial found that aspirin, but not folic acid, reduced recurrence of colorectal adenomas. This study examined whether treatment effects on inflammation markers explained the trial results. The trial had a factorial design with three aspirin (placebo, 81, and 325 mg/d) and two folic acid (placebo and 1 mg/d) groups.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death and usually arises from colorectal polyps. Screening and removal of polyps reduce mortality from CRC. Colorectal polyps are known to aggregate in families; however the genetic determinants for risk of polyps are unknown. In addition, it has been shown that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use decreases the risk of CRC and the incidence and size of polyps.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention: A Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death, and most colorectal cancer usually arises from colorectal adenomas. Removal of polyps reduces mortality from colorectal cancer. Colorectal adenomas are known to aggregate in families; however, the genetic determinants for risk of polyps are largely unknown. METHODS: In this study, we used data from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study and the Tennessee-Indiana Adenoma Recurrence Study to conduct a GWAS of adenoma cases and controls.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Although epidemiologic and experimental evidence strongly implicates chronic inflammation and dietary fats as risk factors for cancer, the mechanisms underlying their contribution to carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here we present genetic evidence demonstrating that deletion of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) attenuates colonic inflammation and colitis-associated adenoma formation/growth. Importantly, PPARδ is required for dextran sodium sulfate induction of proinflammatory mediators, including chemokines, cytokines, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in vivo.