Protein ubiquitylation is a key post-translational control mechanism contributing to different physiological processes, such as signal transduction and ageing. The size and linkage of a ubiquitin chain, which determines whether a substrate is efficiently targeted for proteasomal degradation, is determined by the interplay between ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation. A conserved factor that orchestrates distinct substrate-processing co-regulators in diverse species is the ubiquitin-selective chaperone CDC-48 (also known as p97).
It is hypothesized that a common underlying mechanism links multiple neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (TERA)/valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 directly binds to multiple polyglutamine disease proteins (huntingtin, ataxin-1, ataxin-7 and androgen receptor) via polyglutamine sequence. Although normal and mutant polyglutamine proteins interact with TERA/VCP/p97, only mutant proteins affect dynamism of TERA/VCP/p97.
This study is aimed at exploring the possible mechanism of hypnosis-enhancing effect of HgS or cinnabar (a traditional Chinese medicine containing more than 95% HgS) in mice treated with pentobarbital. We also examined whether the effect of HgS is different from that of the well-known methyl mercury (MeHg).
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on phosphorylase (PP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) of S japonicum. METHODS: Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae for 32-38 d were treated i.g. with Art 100-300 mg.kg-1 and killed 24-72 h after treatment for collection of schistosomes. The activities of PP, LDH, and G-6-PDH were measured by the formation of NADH or NADPH. The activity of ATPase was measured by the rate of release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from ATP at 37 degrees C.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro efficacy of artesunate (ATN) and artemether (ATH) against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Brazilian Amazon state of Pará and to search for mutations and/or altered copy numbers in the putative resistance-associated pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfATPase6 genes. METHODS: In vitro efficacy of ATN and ATH was successfully measured in 56 freshly collected P. falciparum isolates, using a conventional WHO microtest with minor modifications. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the same isolates were inspected using DNA sequencing and/or PCR-RFLP.
Recent reports of increased tolerance to artemisinin derivatives--the most recently adopted class of antimalarials--have prompted a need for new treatments. The spirotetrahydro-beta-carbolines, or spiroindolones, are potent drugs that kill the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates at low nanomolar concentration. Spiroindolones rapidly inhibit protein synthesis in P. falciparum, an effect that is ablated in parasites bearing nonsynonymous mutations in the gene encoding the P-type cation-transporter ATPase4 (PfATP4).
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to better understand the genetic diversity of known polymorphisms in pfatpase6 and pfmdr1 genes before the introduction of ACT in Brazil, in order to get a genotypic snapshot of Plasmodium falciparum parasites that may be used as baseline reference for future studies. METHODS: Parasites from P. falciparum samples collected in 2002, 2004 and 2006-2007 were genotyped using PCR and DNA sequencing at codons 86, 130, 184, 1034, 1042, 1109 and 1246 for pfmdr1 gene, and 243, 263, 402, 431, 623, 630, 639, 683, 716, 776, 769 and 771 for pfatpase6 gene.
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the mainstay of global efforts for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but decline in its efficacy is the most important obstacle towards malaria control and elimination. Therefore, the present molecular analysis provides information on putative mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum clinical population unexposed and exposed to artesunate 4 years after adoption of ACT as the first-line anti-malarial therapy in Iran.
Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) is a creeping grass used as a traditional ayurvedic medicine in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of C. dactylon (AECD) could potentially prevent aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat brain. Male albino rats were administered with AlCl(3) at a dose of 4.2 mg/kg/day i.p.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia pallida is an evergreen endemic tree, mentioned in Ayurveda as the fruits of Terminalia pallida are excellent in cardioprotective property. Tribal people use Terminalia pallida fruit for the treatment of diabetes and this plant widely used in many other disorders. AIM OF STUDY: The present investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant, biochemical profile and histological studies of qualitatively standardized ethanolic extract of Terminalia pallida fruits (TpFE) against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.