In populations in sub-Saharan Africa, transitional changes in patterns of morbidity and mortality are taking place, with decreases in the diseases of poverty and infection, but rises in chronic diseases of prosperity, associated, however, with greater longevity. Remarkably, bowel diseases - appendicitis, diverticular disease, colon cancer - while nearly absent in rural areas, have very low incidences in urban dwellers, despite rises in risk factors, including a decreasing intake of fibre-containing foods.
Kanazawa (2006) has put forward an evolutionarily grounded theory which claims that individuals in wealthier and more egalitarian societies live longer and stay healthier not because they are wealthier or more egalitarian but because they are more intelligent (2006: 637). The claim rests on an argument which asserts that general intelligence is a solution to evolutionarily novel problems and that most dangers to health in contemporary society are evolutionarily novel. Kanazawa also claims that this relationship does not hold in sub-Saharan Africa.
World Hospitals and Health Services: The Official Journal of the International Hospital Federation
In Sub-Saharan Africa private voluntary health care providers are mostly Church-related or social not for profit organizations. They provide between 40% and 60% of health care services. In the context of Health Care Reforms, the World Bank and others have (re)discovered these non governmental providers. The World Bank document 'Better Health for Africa', promotes prominent roles for them in the execution of basic package of services and public health tasks. Unfortunately, the World Bank does not outline clearly how these roles should be achieved.
This paper proposes a causal model of sexual activity among a randomly selected sample of 305 Junio secondary school girls in Zambia. The results indicate that liberal sexual attitudes influence romantic involvement with boys. Emotional involvement is likely to result in sexual activity. Traditional courtship forms are slowly being replaced by modern patterns of courtship behaviour. Policy and programme implications are discussed.
In a prior issue of Developing World Bioethics, Cheryl Macpherson and Ruth Macklin critically engaged with an article of mine, where I articulated a moral theory grounded on indigenous values salient in the sub-Saharan region, and then applied it to four major issues in bioethics, comparing and contrasting its implications with those of the dominant Western moral theories, utilitarianism and Kantianism.
The primary health care model targets social, political, and economic environments as key determinants of health for populations, as well as for individuals. If nursing in Uganda is to make a difference in health care outcomes and in the health of all Ugandans, nurses must look broadly at situations and be educated to practice primary health care nursing. After 14 years of civil war, Uganda is finally experiencing a period of reconstruction and rehabilitation: the whole infrastructure is undergoing a face-lift.
Antimalarial drug resistance is a major public health challenge and the principal reason for the erosion of efficacious treatments. Cost and the limited number of antimalarial drugs in current use impose considerable constraints on malaria control, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper describes a multilateral, multidisciplinary research project on artemisinin-based combination therapy, which offers a new and potentially highly effective way to prevent or retard the development of drug resistance.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are generally regarded as vital in addressing the growing problem posed by the development of antimalarial resistance across sub-Saharan Africa. However, the costs of the new ACTs are likely to be significantly higher than current therapies. Therefore, it is important to examine formally the cost-effectiveness of the more effective yet more expensive ACTs before advocating a switch in policy.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost effectiveness of selected malaria control interventions in the context of reaching the millennium development goals for malaria. DESIGN: Generalised cost effectiveness analysis. DATA SOURCES: Efficacy data came from the literature and authors' calculations supported by expert opinion. Quantities for resource inputs came from the literature and from expert opinion; prices came from the WHO-CHOICE database.
Molecular genotyping of baseline and post-treatment recurrent Plasmodium falciparum is recommended to distinguish recrudescent from new infections. However, genotyping performance and adjustment of treatment outcomes have not been evaluated in large field trials. Parasitological outcomes were assessed in nine double-blinded trials of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in African children treated with artesunate/placebo plus standard monotherapies. Day 28 failure rates were adjusted by stepwise genotyping the P.