B-Lymphocytes

Publication Title: 
Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie En Geriatrie

Ageing in immune reactivity is described at the level of lymphoid cells, at that of lymphoid organs and organ function, and at that of regulation of cell and organ function. Apart from shifts in numbers of lymphoid cell subpopulations, the decrease in communication capacity between lymphoid cell populations and in binding of invaders (like bacteria) is an important aspect of ageing. These aspects may contribute to the decreased immune reactivity to invaders and the enhanced incidence of immune reactions to self-components (autoimmune reactivity).

Author(s): 
Schuurman, H. J.
Lokhorst, H. M.
Publication Title: 
Folia Biologica

An extension of the mathematical model of immunological tolerance including two categories of B and T helper cells, each having a different lifespan, is presented. The simulated recovery from tolerance is compared with experimental data on B and T helper cell tolerance to human gamma globulin (HGG) induced in adult mice. The performed simulation runs suggest the conclusion that in this case it seems impossible to incorporate a high ratio of both, long-lived B cells and/or short-lived T helper cells, if good agreement with the available experimental data should be preserved.

Author(s): 
Dolezal, J.
Hraba, T.
Publication Title: 
BMC genomics

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and play a critical role in development, homeostasis, and disease. Despite their demonstrated roles in age-associated pathologies, little is known about the role of miRNAs in human aging and longevity. RESULTS: We employed massively parallel sequencing technology to identify miRNAs expressed in B-cells from Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians, i.e., those living to a hundred and a human model of exceptional longevity, and younger controls without a family history of longevity.

Author(s): 
Gombar, Saurabh
Jung, Hwa Jin
Dong, Feng
Calder, Brent
Atzmon, Gil
Barzilai, Nir
Tian, Xiao-Li
Pothof, Joris
Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.
Campisi, Judith
Vijg, Jan
Suh, Yousin
Publication Title: 
Arthritis Research & Therapy

INTRODUCTION: B-cell depletion has become a common treatment strategy in anti-TNF-refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although the exact mechanism of how B-cell depletion leads to clinical amelioration in RA remains to be elucidated, repetitive treatment with B-cell-depleting agents leading to long-term B-cell depletion has been reported to be beneficial. The latter has led to the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of B-cell depletion might act through their influence on pathogenic autoreactive plasma cells.

Author(s): 
Teng, Y. K. Onno
Wheater, Gillian
Hogan, Vanessa E.
Stocks, Philip
Levarht, E. W. Nivine
Huizinga, Tom W. J.
Toes, Rene E. M.
van Laar, Jacob M.
Publication Title: 
BMC genomics

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and play a critical role in development, homeostasis, and disease. Despite their demonstrated roles in age-associated pathologies, little is known about the role of miRNAs in human aging and longevity. RESULTS: We employed massively parallel sequencing technology to identify miRNAs expressed in B-cells from Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians, i.e., those living to a hundred and a human model of exceptional longevity, and younger controls without a family history of longevity.

Author(s): 
Gombar, Saurabh
Jung, Hwa Jin
Dong, Feng
Calder, Brent
Atzmon, Gil
Barzilai, Nir
Tian, Xiao-Li
Pothof, Joris
Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.
Campisi, Judith
Vijg, Jan
Suh, Yousin
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

The B cell arm of adaptive immunity undergoes significant modifications with age. Elderly people are characterized by impaired B cell responses reflected in a reduced ability to effectively respond against viruses and bacteria. Alterations of immunity with advancing age (immunosenescence) have been widely studied in centenarians who are considered a good example of successful aging. In recent years, attention has shifted to centenarian offspring (CO) as a model of people genetically advantaged for healthy aging and longevity.

Author(s): 
Buffa, Silvio
PellicanÚ, Mariavaleria
Bulati, Matteo
Martorana, Adriana
Goldeck, David
Caruso, Calogero
Pawelec, Graham
Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina
Publication Title: 
Lupus

B cells are critical players in the orchestration of properly regulated immune responses, normally providing protective immunity without autoimmunity. Balance in the B cell compartment is achieved through the finely regulated participation of multiple B cell populations with different antibody-dependent and independent functions. Both types of functions allow B cells to modulate other components of the innate and adaptive immune system. Autoantibody-independent B cell functions include antigen presentation, T cell activation and polarization, and dendritic cell modulation.

Author(s): 
Anolik, J. H.
Publication Title: 
BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex heterogeneous disease, posing challenges to clinical trials. As in other autoimmune diseases, B-lymphocytes play a central role in lupus pathogenesis. The finding that selection and survival of B cells are controlled by a variety of signals, including those provided by the longevity factor BAFF (B-cell activating factor), also called BLyS (B-lymphocyte stimulator), led to preclinical trials that revealed that BAFF represents a promising therapeutic target for human lupus. Belimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against BAFF.

Author(s): 
Zouali, Moncef
Uy, Eugene A.
Publication Title: 
Nature Reviews. Immunology

Antibody production is an important feature of the vertebrate immune system. Antibodies neutralize and clear pathogens, thereby protecting against infectious diseases. Such humoral immunity has great longevity, often persisting for the host's lifetime. Long-lived humoral immunity depends on help provided by CD4(+) T cells, namely T follicular helper (TFH) cells, which support the differentiation of antigen-specific B cells into memory and plasma cells.

Author(s): 
Tangye, Stuart G.
Ma, Cindy S.
Brink, Robert
Deenick, Elissa K.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Immunology

Antibodies (Abs) are critical for immunity to malaria. However, Plasmodium falciparum specific Abs decline rapidly in absence of reinfection, suggesting impaired immunological memory. This study determines whether residents of Sweden that were treated for malaria following international travel maintained long-lasting malaria-specific Abs and memory B cells (MBCs).

Author(s): 
Ndungu, Francis M.
Lundblom, Klara
Rono, Josea
Illingworth, Joseph
Eriksson, Sara
F‰rnert, Anna

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