Body Composition

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging

Caloric restriction (CR), undernutrition without malnutrition, remains the only experimental paradigm that has been shown consistently to extend lifespan and slow aging in short-lived species. Decades of research, mostly in laboratory rodents, have shown that CR consistently extends lifespan, reduces or delays the onset of many age-related diseases and slows aging in many physiological systems. In recent years gerontologists interested in CR have focused on two unanswered questions. 1) What is the relevance of this nutritional paradigm to human aging?

Author(s): 
Lane, M. A.
Ingram, D. K.
Roth, G. S.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The focus of this review is on current research involving long-term calorie restriction and the resulting changes observed in possible biomarkers of aging. Special emphasis will be given to the basic and clinical science studies which are currently investigating the effects of controlled, high-quality energy-restricted diets on both biomarkers of longevity and on the development of chronic diseases related to age and obesity in humans.

Author(s): 
Smith, Julie V.
Heilbronn, Leonie K.
Ravussin, Eric
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations among age, health status, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a large population of older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Community-dwelling volunteers from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). PARTICIPANTS: Persons aged 40 to 96 (mean 68.2 ± 11.0) who underwent a comprehensive physical examination, cognitive assessment, RMR testing, body composition assessment, and physical function testing during a 3-day clinic visit (N = 420).

Author(s): 
Schrack, Jennifer A.
Knuth, Nicolas D.
Simonsick, Eleanor M.
Ferrucci, Luigi
Publication Title: 
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

Many children with muscular dystrophy are overweight, and although weight control is pursued in some centres it is unusual to encourage severe dietary restriction for fear that it might lead to accelerated loss of muscle. In this study, two overweight boys with muscular dystrophy were monitored by whole-body nitrogen balance, total body potassium, strength and functional measurements during calorie restriction.

Author(s): 
Edwards, R. H.
Round, J. M.
Jackson, M. J.
Griffiths, R. D.
Lilburn, M. F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Dietetic Association

A high percentage of body fat is considered to be the primary cause of risks associated with high body weight. Yet body fat content per se may not cause the risks. The contribution of obesity to risks may be because overfilled adipose tissue cannot remove offending substances from circulation. The ability to remove excess glucose, lipids, and offending materials from circulation, not the amount of body fat, may be the important factor. People with large, partially filled adipose depots may have less risk than people with small, but filled adipose depots.

Author(s): 
Abernathy, R. P.
Black, D. R.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging

Caloric restriction (CR), undernutrition without malnutrition, remains the only experimental paradigm that has been shown consistently to extend lifespan and slow aging in short-lived species. Decades of research, mostly in laboratory rodents, have shown that CR consistently extends lifespan, reduces or delays the onset of many age-related diseases and slows aging in many physiological systems. In recent years gerontologists interested in CR have focused on two unanswered questions. 1) What is the relevance of this nutritional paradigm to human aging?

Author(s): 
Lane, M. A.
Ingram, D. K.
Roth, G. S.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Dietary energy restriction is the only proven method for extending lifespan and slowing aging in mammals, while maintaining health and vitality. Although the first experiments in this area were conducted over 60 y ago in rodents, possible applicability to primates has only been examined in controlled studies since 1987. Our project at the National Institute on Aging began with 3-0 male rhesus and 30 male squirrel monkeys of various ages over their respective life spans.

Author(s): 
Roth, G. S.
Ingram, D. K.
Black, A.
Lane, M. A.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

As the only paradigm that has consistently increased life span and inhibited the onset and/or progression of disease, dietary restriction has multiple effects on a variety of organ systems. In this brief review, the goal of the panel was to attempt to understand the role of changes in physical activity and body composition as possible modulators of the life span in experimental animals and humans.

Author(s): 
Poehlman, E. T.
Turturro, A.
Bodkin, N.
Cefalu, W.
Heymsfield, S.
Holloszy, J.
Kemnitz, J.
Publication Title: 
Obesity Research

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a difference in risk-factor improvement for coronary heart disease (CHD) between the intra-abdominal fat (IF) and subcutaneous fat (SF) obesity phenotypes after weight loss. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Subjects included 55 mildly obese women (body mass index, 25 to 36 kg/m(2); age range, 34 to 63 years) who had at least two of three CHD risk factors [systolic blood pressure (SBP), >140 mm Hg; total cholesterol (TC), >220 mg/dL; fasting plasma glucose, >110 mg/dL).

Author(s): 
Okura, Tomohiro
Tanaka, Kiyoji
Nakanishi, Tomoko
Lee, Dong Jun
Nakata, Yoshio
Wee, Seung Wan
Shimokata, Hiroshi
Publication Title: 
Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

Short-term studies indicate that intentional weight loss (IWL) among obese persons significantly improves health variables that are often precursors or markers of chronic diseases (e.g. heart diseases, type-2 diabetes). Hence, it is logical to assume that IWL among obese persons would lead to increased longevity.

Author(s): 
Yang, D.
Fontaine, K. R.
Wang, C.
Allison, D. B.

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