Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a promising tool to characterize the mechanical properties of biological materials and cells. In our studies, undifferentiated and early differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) were assessed individually using an AFM system to determine if we could detect changes in their mechanical properties by surface probing. Probes with pyramidal and spherical tips were assessed, as were different analytical models for evaluating the data.
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain due to nerve injury is one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. Following peripheral nerve injury, neuronal and glial plastic changes contribute to central sensitization and perpetuation of mechanical hypersensitivity in rodents. The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family is pivotal in this spinal cord plasticity. MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) limit inflammatory processes by dephosphorylating MAPKs. For example, MKP-1 preferentially dephosphorylates p-p38.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid. It is well known for its role as an inhibitory neurotransmitter of developing and operating nervous systems in brains. In this study, a novel function of GABA in the healing process of cutaneous wounds was presented regarding anti-inflammation and fibroblast cell proliferation. The cell proliferation activity of GABA was verified through an MTT assay using murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cells. It was observed that GABA significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of iNOS, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.
A stretch-activated (SA) Cl(-) channel in the plasma membrane of the human mast cell line HMC-1 was identified in outside-out patch-clamp experiments. SA currents, induced by pressure applied to the pipette, exhibited voltage dependence with strong outward rectification (55.1 pS at +100 mV and an about tenfold lower conductance at -100 mV). The probability of the SA channel being open (P (o)) also showed steep outward rectification and pressure dependence.
Mast cells are known to respond to a number of stimuli, such as IgE antibody-antigen complexes, pathogens, chemical compounds, and physical stimulation, resulting in the activation of these cells and subsequent release of cytokines, inflammatory mediators and granules which can influence the pathophysiology of neighboring cells. Although different forms of physical stimulation (i.e. shear stress and acupuncture) have been investigated, the effect of cyclic tensile loading on mast cell activation has not.