Cohort Studies

Publication Title: 
BailliËre's Clinical Rheumatology

It has been recognized that the remarkable decline in infant mortality and the extension in human lifespan involving both developing and developed countries alike, has been influenced by social and economic developments and public health orientated measures (such as clean water and sewerage) rather more than by developments in medical research. However, the identification of important disease risk factors for a number of common conditions such as smoking, solar exposure, dietary fat and alcohol has led to further reductions in disease prevalence and mortality, at least in some countries.

Author(s): 
Muirden, K. D.
Publication Title: 
BMC medical genetics

BACKGROUND: Family studies and heritability estimates provide evidence for a genetic contribution to variation in the human life span. METHODS: We conducted a genome wide association study (Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip) for longevity-related traits in a community-based sample. We report on 5 longevity and aging traits in up to 1345 Framingham Study participants from 330 families.

Author(s): 
Lunetta, Kathryn L.
D'Agostino, Ralph B.
Karasik, David
Benjamin, Emelia J.
Guo, Chao-Yu
Govindaraju, Raju
Kiel, Douglas P.
Kelly-Hayes, Margaret
Massaro, Joseph M.
Pencina, Michael J.
Seshadri, Sudha
Murabito, Joanne M.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Rather than being a passive, haphazard process of wear and tear, lifespan can be modulated actively by components of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) pathway in laboratory animals. Complete or partial loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding components of the insulin/IGFI pathway result in extension of life span in yeasts, worms, flies, and mice. This remarkable conservation throughout evolution suggests that altered signaling in this pathway may also influence human lifespan.

Author(s): 
Suh, Yousin
Atzmon, Gil
Cho, Mi-Ook
Hwang, David
Liu, Bingrong
Leahy, Daniel J.
Barzilai, Nir
Cohen, Pinchas
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Our previous work revealed that 88% of centenarians delay or escape the age-related lethal diseases cardiac disease, stroke and diabetes. In the cases of those having a history of cancer we have observed anecdotes of centenarians presenting with large primary tumors that would have otherwise been expected to have metastasized and to have been lethal. However, these tumors were removed without consequence.

Author(s): 
Andersen, Stacy L.
Terry, Dellara F.
Wilcox, Marsha A.
Babineau, Timothy
Malek, Karim
Perls, Thomas T.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Okinawa, an isolated island prefecture of Japan, has among the highest prevalence of exceptionally long-lived individuals in the world; therefore, we hypothesized that, within this population, genes that confer a familial survival advantage might have clustered. We analyzed the pedigrees of 348 centenarian families with 1142 siblings and compared sibling survival with that of the 1890 Okinawan general population cohort. Both male and female centenarian siblings experienced approximately half the mortality of their birth cohort-matched counterparts.

Author(s): 
Willcox, Bradley J.
Willcox, D. Craig
He, Qimei
Curb, J. David
Suzuki, Makoto
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Recently, chromosome 4q25 was linked to exceptional human longevity, and a haplotype of the positional candidate microsomal transfer protein (MTP) gene was associated to the phenotype in U.S. Caucasians. We investigated whether linkage to 4q25 could be detected in 164 nonagenarian sibships of the Leiden Longevity Study. Additionally, we compared the MTP -493G/T and Q95H allele and haplotype frequencies in the Leiden Longevity Study (379 nonagenarians, 525 of their offspring, and 251 partners of their offspring) and in the Leiden 85-Plus Study (655 octogenarians and 244 young controls).

Author(s): 
Beekman, Marian
Blauw, Gerard Jan
Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.
Brandt, Bernd W.
Westendorp, Rudi G. J.
Slagboom, P. Eline
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

As the elderly population is increasing rapidly, there is a lot of scientific interest in clarifying the differential life-style, genetic, biochemical and molecular factors contributing to mortality or exceptional longevity. Within the framework of the ZINCAGE project, 249 old (60-85 years) and nonagenarian Greek subjects (>/=85 years old) were recruited and anthropometrical, blood and biochemical indices as well as blood pressure measurements were obtained.

Author(s): 
Kanoni, Stavroula
Dedoussis, George
Manios, Yannis
Malavolta, Marco
Mocchegiani, Eugenio
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Late-life loss of independence in daily living is a central concern for the aging individual and for society. The implications of increased survival to advanced age may be different at the population level than at the individual level. Here we used a longitudinal multi-assessment survey of the entire Danish 1905 cohort from 1998 to 2005 to assess the loss of physical and cognitive independence in the age range of 92 to 100 years.

Author(s): 
Christensen, Kaare
McGue, Matt
Petersen, Inge
Jeune, Bernard
Vaupel, James W.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether familial longevity can be attributed to sustained hematopoietic capacity. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study of two independent population-based cohorts. SETTING: The Leiden Longevity Study and the Leiden 85-plus Study. PARTICIPANTS: From the Leiden Longevity Study, 1,001 nonagenarians with familial longevity were included. As age-matched controls, 260 nonagenarians without familial longevity were used from the Leiden 85-plus Study. MEASUREMENTS: Hemoglobin, leukocytes, and thrombocytes were measured for all subjects with and without familial longevity.

Author(s): 
Willems, Jorien M.
Trompet, Stella
Eline Slagboom, P.
de Craen, Anton J. M.
Westendorp, Rudi G. J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Rural Health: Official Journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association

CONTEXT: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring for them. PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of disabling conditions, including cognitive impairment, among the very elderly in a rural setting to guide clinicians in their care.

Author(s): 
Kaye, Jeffrey
Michael, Yvonne
Calvert, James
Leahy, Marjorie
Crawford, Debbie
Kramer, Patricia

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