Regional analgesia has become the most common method of pain relief used during labor in the United States. Epidural and spinal analgesia are two types of regional analgesia. With epidural analgesia, an indwelling catheter is directed into the epidural space, and the patient receives a continuous infusion or multiple injections of local anesthetic. Spinal injections are usually single injections into the intrathecal space. A combination of epidural and spinal analgesia, known as a walking epidural, also is available.
BACKGROUND: Carboetomidate is an etomidate derivative that produces hypnosis without inhibiting adrenal corticosteroid synthesis. Similar to etomidate, carboetomidate modulates ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, but its effects on other ion channel targets of general anesthetics are unknown. METHODS: We compared etomidate and carboetomidate effects on human N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors or neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nnAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes, using 2-microelectrode voltage clamp electrophysiology.
INTRODUCTION: The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of Ericksonian hypnosis in reducing the impact of tinnitus on patients' quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A controlled prospective longitudinal study was designed. The severity of tinnitus was assessed with Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) before hypnotherapy and then 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after therapy. Health Survey SF-36 was used to assess health-related quality of life before and after hypnotherapy.
BACKGROUND: Low mean arterial pressure (MAP) and deep hypnosis have been associated with complications and mortality. The normal response to high minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) fraction of anesthetics is hypotension and low Bispectral Index (BIS) scores. Low MAP and/or BIS at lower MAC fractions may represent anesthetic sensitivity. The authors sought to characterize the effect of the triple low state (low MAP and low BIS during a low MAC fraction) on duration of hospitalization and 30-day all-cause mortality.
We present a short historical review on the major institutions and figures who contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and as 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines that have progressed and contributed most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology.
Pain and anxiety are closely associated with bone marrow aspirates and biopsies. To determine whether hypnosis administered concurrently with the procedure can ameliorate these morbidities, the authors randomly assigned 80 cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspirates and biopsies to either hypnosis or standard of care. The hypnosis intervention reduced the anxiety associated with procedure, but the difference in pain scores between the two groups was not statistically significant.
Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
INTRODUCTION: After a hypnotic induction, medium and highly hypnotizable individuals often report spontaneous alterations in various dimensions of consciousness. Few studies investigating these experiences have controlled for the inherent demands of specific hypnotic suggestions and fewer still have considered their dynamic properties and neural correlates.
The accurate assessment of the depth of anesthesia, allowing a more accurate adaptation of the doses of hypnotics, is an important end point for the anesthesiologist. It is a particularly crucial issue in pediatric anesthesia, in the context of the recent controversies about the potential neurological consequences of the main anesthetic drugs on the developing brain. The electroencephalogram signal reflects the electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex. It is thus the key to assessment of the level of hypnosis.
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric hypnosis has a useful role in pre-, peri-, and post-anesthesia to minimize anticipatory anxiety, and as adjunctive treatment to reduce and control pain. This article reviews the literature in the use of hypnosis in pediatric anesthesia to highlight its role and relevancy. BACKGROUND: Current research indicates there is an immediate and enduring impact, and long-term benefits of this child-centered intervention.