Cytoplasm

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Human methionine adenosyltransferase 2beta (MAT2beta) encodes for two major splicing variants, V1 and V2, which are differentially expressed in normal tissues. Both variants are induced in human liver cancer and positively regulate growth. The aim of this work was to identify interacting proteins of V1 and V2. His-tagged V1 and V2 were overexpressed in Rosetta pLysS cells, purified, and used in a pulldown assay to identify interacting proteins from human colon cancer cell line RKO cell lysates. The eluted lysates were subjected to Western blot and in solution proteomic analyses.

Author(s): 
Xia, Meng
Chen, Yongheng
Wang, Ling-Chi
Zandi, Ebrahim
Yang, Heping
Bemanian, Sean
Martínez-Chantar, M. Luz
Mato, José M.
Lu, Shelly C.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: A liver-derived protein, fetuin-A, was first purified from calf fetal serum in 1944, but its potential role in lethal systemic inflammation was previously unknown. This study aims to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hepatic fetuin-A expression during lethal systemic inflammation (LSI), and investigated whether alterations of fetuin-A levels affect animal survival, and influence systemic accumulation of a late mediator, HMGB1.

Author(s): 
Li, Wei
Zhu, Shu
Li, Jianhua
Huang, Yan
Zhou, Rongrong
Fan, Xuegong
Yang, Huan
Gong, Xing
Eissa, N. Tony
Jahnen-Dechent, Willi
Wang, Ping
Tracey, Kevin J.
Sama, Andrew E.
Wang, Haichao
Publication Title: 
Biochemical Pharmacology

Historically, consumption of Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has been associated with health benefits against multiple diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders. Emerging evidence has suggested a pathogenic role for HMGB1, a newly identified "late" mediator of lethal systemic inflammation, in the aforementioned diseases. Here we demonstrated that a major ingredient of Green tea, EGCG, was internalized into HMGB1-containing LC3-positive cytoplasmic vesicles (likely autophagosomes) in macrophages, and induced HMGB1 aggregation in a time-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Li, Wei
Zhu, Shu
Li, Jianhua
Assa, Andrei
Jundoria, Arvin
Xu, Jianying
Fan, Saijun
Eissa, N. Tony
Tracey, Kevin J.
Sama, Andrew E.
Wang, Haichao
Publication Title: 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)

Hu antigen R (HuR) is a central RNA-binding protein regulating cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, and survival, which are well-established hallmarks of cancer. HuR is frequently overexpressed in tumors correlating with tumor malignancy, which is in line with a role for HuR in tumorigenesis. However, the precise mechanism leading to changes in HuR expression remains unclear. In the liver, HuR plays a crucial role in hepatocyte proliferation, differentiation, and transformation.

Author(s): 
Embade, Nieves
Fernández-Ramos, David
Varela-Rey, Marta
Beraza, Naiara
Sini, Marcella
Gutiérrez de Juan, Virginia
Woodhoo, Ashwin
Martínez-López, Nuria
Rodríguez-Iruretagoyena, Begoña
Bustamante, Francisco Javier
de la Hoz, Ana Belén
Carracedo, Arkaitz
Xirodimas, Dimitris P.
Rodríguez, Manuel S.
Lu, Shelly C.
Mato, José M.
Martínez-Chantar, María L.
Publication Title: 
Biochemistry

Vascular adhesion molecules regulate the migration of leukocytes from the blood into tissue during inflammation. Binding of leukocytes to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) activates signals in endothelial cells, including Rac1 and calcium fluxes. These VCAM-1 signals are required for leukocyte transendothelial migration on VCAM-1. However, it has not been reported whether the cytoplasmic domain of VCAM-1 is necessary for these signals.

Author(s): 
Marchese, Michelle E.
Berdnikovs, Sergejs
Cook-Mills, Joan M.
Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

In present study, we evaluated grape seed extract (GSE) efficacy against bladder cancer and associated mechanism in two different bladder cancer cell lines T24 and HTB9. A significant inhibitory effect of GSE on cancer cell viability was observed, which was due to apoptotic cell death. Cell death events were preceded by vacuolar appearance in cytoplasm, which under electron microscopy was confirmed as swollen mitochondrial organelle and autophagosomes.

Author(s): 
Raina, Komal
Tyagi, Alpna
Kumar, Dileep
Agarwal, Rajesh
Agarwal, Chapla
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

The Long-Evans shaker (les) rat has a mutation in myelin basic protein that results in severe CNS dysmyelination and subsequent demyelination during development. During this time, les oligodendrocytes accumulate cytoplasmic vesicles, including lysosomes and membrane-bound organelles. However, the mechanism and functional relevance behind these oligodendrocyte abnormalities in les have not been investigated. Using high-magnification electron microscopy, we identified the accumulations in les oligodendrocytes as early and late autophagosomes.

Author(s): 
Smith, Chelsey M.
Mayer, Joshua A.
Duncan, Ian D.
Publication Title: 
Genes & Development

The mammalian cytoplasmic protein SirT2 is a member of the Sir2 family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases involved in caloric restriction-dependent life span extension. We found that SirT2 and its yeast counterpart Hst2 have a strong preference for histone H4K16Ac in their deacetylation activity in vitro and in vivo. We have pinpointed the decrease in global levels of H4K16Ac during the mammalian cell cycle to the G2/M transition that coincides with SirT2 localization on chromatin.

Author(s): 
Vaquero, Alejandro
Scher, Michael B.
Lee, Dong Hoon
Sutton, Ann
Cheng, Hwei-Ling
Alt, Frederick W.
Serrano, Lourdes
Sternglanz, Rolf
Reinberg, Danny
Publication Title: 
Bioscience Reports

The influence of caloric restriction on hepatic glyceraldehyde- and glycerol-metabolizing enzyme activities of young and old mice were studied. Glycerol kinase and cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were increased in both young and old CR (calorie-restricted) mice when compared with controls, whereas triokinase increased only in old CR mice. Aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase activities in both young and old CR mice were unchanged by caloric restriction.

Author(s): 
Hagopian, Kevork
Ramsey, Jon J.
Weindruch, Richard
Publication Title: 
Oncology Reports

Ophiopogonin B (OP-B) is a bioactive component of Radix Ophiopogon Japonicus, which is often used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat pulmonary disease. However, whether or not OP-B has any potential antitumor activity has not been reported. Here, we show that the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines NCI-H157 and NCI-H460 treated with OP-B grow more slowly and accumulate vacuoles in their cytoplasm compared to untreated control cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the cells were arrested in G0/G1 phase.

Author(s): 
Chen, Meijuan
Du, Yuhong
Qui, Min
Wang, Mingyan
Chen, Kejun
Huang, Zhenzhou
Jiang, Miao
Xiong, Fei
Chen, Jianping
Zhou, Jing
Jiang, Fengrong
Yin, Lian
Tang, Yuping
Ye, Lihong
Zhan, Zhen
Duan, Jin-Αo
Fu, Hai-Αn
Zhang, Xu

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