Data Interpretation, Statistical

Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurology

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common disorder, for which various conservative treatment options are available. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the various conservative treatment options for relieving the symptoms of CTS. Computer-aided searches of MEDLINE (1/1966 to 3/2000), EMBASE (1/1988 to 2/2000) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (2000, issue 1) were conducted, together with reference checking.

Author(s): 
Gerritsen, Annette A. M.
de Krom, Marc C. T. F. M.
Struijs, Margaretha A.
Scholten, Rob J. P. M.
de Vet, Henrica C. W.
Bouter, Lex M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Vascular Surgery

Large databases can be a rich source of clinical and administrative information on broad populations. These datasets are characterized by demographic and clinical data for over 1000 patients from multiple institutions. Since they are often collected and funded for other purposes, their use for secondary analysis increases their utility at relatively low costs. Advantages of large databases as a source include the very large numbers of available patients and their related medical information. Disadvantages include lack of detailed clinical information and absence of causal descriptions.

Author(s): 
Nguyen, Louis L.
Barshes, Neal R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To conduct a pilot study to compare the frequency of errors that accompany single vs. double data extraction, compare the estimate of treatment effect derived from these methods, and compare the time requirements for these methods. METHODS: Reviewers were randomized to the role of data extractor or data verifier, and were blind to the study hypothesis. The frequency of errors associated with each method of data extraction was compared using the McNemar test.

Author(s): 
Buscemi, Nina
Hartling, Lisa
Vandermeer, Ben
Tjosvold, Lisa
Klassen, Terry P.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

In a 3rd meta-analysis of the effect of adding hypnosis to cognitive-behavioral treatments for weight reduction, additional data were obtained from authors of 2 studies, and computational inaccuracies in both previous meta-analyses were corrected. Averaged across posttreatment and follow-up assessment periods, the mean weight loss was 6.00 lbs. (2.72 kg) without hypnosis and 11.83 lbs. (5.37 kg) with hypnosis. The mean effect size of this difference was 0.66 SD. At the last assessment period, the mean weight loss was 6.03 lbs. (2.74 kg) without hypnosis and 14.88 lbs.

Author(s): 
Kirsch, I.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine

Systematic reviews are considered the most reliable tool to summarize existing evidence. To determine whether reviews that address the same questions can produce different answers we examined systematic reviews of herbal medicine, homeopathy, and acupuncture taken from a previously established database. Information on literature searching, inclusion criteria, selection process, quality assessment, data extraction, methods to summarize primary studies, number of included studies, results and conclusions was compared qualitatively.

Author(s): 
Linde, Klaus
Willich, Stefan N.
Publication Title: 
Revue Medicale De La Suisse Romande

Are cholesterol lowering drugs useful? Do they increase life expectancy? Do third generation oral contraceptives increase the risk of venous thromboembolism? Is there a worldwide decline in semen quality over the last 50 years? Do vitamin supplements improve your child's IQ? Does homeopathy work better than placebo? These questions illustrate some statistical problems and some bias encountered during clinical studies, which can lead to erroneous results. Type I and II errors, surveillance, prescription or publication bias as well as the healthy user effect are described.

Author(s): 
Martin-Du Pan, R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

OBJECTIVE: Shang's recently published meta-analysis on homeopathic remedies (Lancet) based its main conclusion on a subset of eight larger trials out of 21 high quality trials (out of 110 included trials). We performed a sensitivity analysis on various other meaningful trial subsets of all high quality trials. STUDY DESIGN: Subsets were defined according to sample size, type of homeopathy, type of publication, and treated disease/condition. For each subset, we estimated the overall odds ratios (ORs) from random effect meta-analyses.

Author(s): 
Ludtke, R.
Rutten, A. L. B.
Publication Title: 
Forschende Komplementarmedizin (2006)

In the first decade of the evidence-based era, which began in the mid-1990s, meta-analyses were used to scrutinize homeopathy for evidence of beneficial effects in medical conditions. In this review, meta-analyses including pooled data from placebo-controlled clinical trials of homeopathy and the aftermath in the form of debate articles were analyzed. In 1997 Klaus Linde and co-workers identified 89 clinical trials that showed an overall odds ratio of 2.45 in favor of homeopathy over placebo.

Author(s): 
Hahn, Robert G.
Publication Title: 
Controlled Clinical Trials

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether clinical trials originating in certain countries always have positive results. DATA SOURCES: Abstracts of trials from Medline (January 1966-June 1995). STUDY SELECTION: Two separate studies were conducted. The first included trials in which the clinical outcome of a group of subjects receiving acupuncture was compared to that of a group receiving placebo, no treatment, or a nonacupuncture intervention.

Author(s): 
Vickers, A.
Goyal, N.
Harland, R.
Rees, R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurology

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common disorder, for which various conservative treatment options are available. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the various conservative treatment options for relieving the symptoms of CTS. Computer-aided searches of MEDLINE (1/1966 to 3/2000), EMBASE (1/1988 to 2/2000) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (2000, issue 1) were conducted, together with reference checking.

Author(s): 
Gerritsen, Annette A. M.
de Krom, Marc C. T. F. M.
Struijs, Margaretha A.
Scholten, Rob J. P. M.
de Vet, Henrica C. W.
Bouter, Lex M.

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