Energy Metabolism

Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

DNA methylation patterns change as individuals grow older, and DNA methylation appears susceptible to modification by the diet. Thus DNA methylation may be a mechanism through which diet can affect aging and longevity. We propose that effects on DNA methylation also contribute to the extension in lifespan observed in response to dietary restriction. Relationships between diet-induced changes in DNA methylation and parallel effects on aging and/or lifespan could, of course, be purely associative.

Author(s): 
Ford, Dianne
Publication Title: 
Science China. Life Sciences

Aging is a developmental process occurring in all living organisms after reaching a critical developmental stage, characterized by progressive loss of functions until death. Different cells/tissues age differently depending on epigenetics and cell-cell interactions. While males maintain fertility for the most part of their life females only maintain reproductive ability for a short time compared with their lifespan. The interesting question is why and how the females lose fertility so quickly.

Author(s): 
Deng, ManQi
Publication Title: 
Cellular and molecular life sciences: CMLS

Reduction of nutrient intake without malnutrition positively influences lifespan and healthspan from yeast to mice and exerts some beneficial effects also in humans. The AMPK-FoxO axis is one of the evolutionarily conserved nutrient-sensing pathways, and the FOXO3A locus is associated with human longevity. Interestingly, FoxO3A has been reported to be also a mitochondrial protein in mammalian cells and tissues. Here we report that glucose restriction triggers FoxO3A accumulation into mitochondria of fibroblasts and skeletal myotubes in an AMPK-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Peserico, Alessia
Chiacchiera, Fulvio
Grossi, Valentina
Matrone, Antonio
Latorre, Dominga
Simonatto, Marta
Fusella, Aurora
Ryall, James G.
Finley, Lydia W. S.
Haigis, Marcia C.
Villani, Gaetano
Puri, Pier Lorenzo
Sartorelli, Vittorio
Simone, Cristiano
Publication Title: 
Endokrynologia Polska

Studies in mutant, gene knock-out and transgenic mice have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH) signalling has a major impact on ageing and longevity. Growth hormone-resistant and GH-deficient animals live much longer than their normal siblings, while transgenic mice overexpressing GH are short lived. Actions of GH in juvenile animals appear to be particularly important for life extension and responsible for various phenotypic characteristics of long-lived hypopituitary mutants.

Author(s): 
Bartke, Andrzej
Westbrook, Reyhan
Sun, Liou
Ratajczak, Mariusz
Publication Title: 
Climacteric: The Journal of the International Menopause Society

Interactions between genetic (genome) and environmental factors (epigenome) operate during a person's entire lifespan. The aging process is associated with several cellular and organic functional alterations that, at the end, cause multi-organic cell failure. Epigenetic mechanisms of aging are modifiable by appropriate preventive actions mediated by sirtuins, caloric input, diet components, adipose tissue-related inflammatory reactions, and physical activity.

Author(s): 
Chedraui, P.
PÈrez-LÛpez, F. R.
Publication Title: 
Molecules and Cells

Sirtuins (SIRTs), a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases, are emerging as key molecules that regulate aging and age-related diseases including cancers, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Seven isoforms of SIRT (SIRT1-7) have been identified in mammals. SIRT1 and 6, mainly localized in the nucleus, regulate transcription of genes and DNA repair. SIRT3 in the mitochondria regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics.

Author(s): 
Park, Seongjoon
Mori, Ryoichi
Shimokawa, Isao
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Oncology

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies on mammalian sirtuins that coordinately regulate cellular metabolic homeostasis upon fasting and to summarize the beneficial effects of fasting on carcinogenesis and cancer therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated that fasting may protect normal cells and mice from the metabolic conditions that are harmful as well as decrease the incidence of carcinogenesis. Fasting could also slow the tumor growth and augment the efficacy of certain systemic agents/chemotherapy drugs in various cancers.

Author(s): 
Zhu, Yueming
Yan, Yufan
Gius, David R.
Vassilopoulos, Athanassios
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

In mammals, the sestrin family is composed of three stress-responsive genes. Ablation of sestrin in Drosophila attenuates longevity, which is accompanied by increased S6K phosphorylation and decreased AMPK phosphorylation. Nevertheless, the metabolic role of sestrins in mammals is not comprehensively understood. We characterized the expression of individual sestrin family members and determined their role in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Author(s): 
Nascimento, Emmani Bm
Osler, Megan E.
Zierath, Juleen R.
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Nutrition
Author(s): 
Buskirk, E. R.
Publication Title: 
Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde

Information on daily nutrient requirements is more complete for farm animals than for horses, pets and man. Very little is known, particularly in man, horses and pets of the relationship between nutrition and longevity. Therefore, a slightly higher intake of essential nutrients would appear to be preferable, the more so as the body can readily remove any surpluses. This also holds true for man and animals in suboptimum living conditions.

Author(s): 
van Es, A. J.

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