Energy Metabolism

Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

As the only paradigm that has consistently increased life span and inhibited the onset and/or progression of disease, dietary restriction has multiple effects on a variety of organ systems. In this brief review, the goal of the panel was to attempt to understand the role of changes in physical activity and body composition as possible modulators of the life span in experimental animals and humans.

Author(s): 
Poehlman, E. T.
Turturro, A.
Bodkin, N.
Cefalu, W.
Heymsfield, S.
Holloszy, J.
Kemnitz, J.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Animal experiments have shown that calorically restricted (CR) animals weigh less and live longer than their ad libitum-fed peers. Are these observations applicable to human beings? This is an important question because the prevalence of obesity in America has increased markedly over recent years. We examine whether there are physiologic effects that occur with CR in humans that could plausibly explain the observed longevity of laboratory animals associated with CR.

Author(s): 
Lee, I. M.
Blair, S. N.
Allison, D. B.
Folsom, A. R.
Harris, T. B.
Manson, J. E.
Wing, R. R.
Publication Title: 
Scientific American
Author(s): 
Lane, Mark A.
Ingram, Donald K.
Roth, George S.
Publication Title: 
Microscopy Research and Technique

Many hormonal signals from peripheral tissues contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake. These regulators including leptin, insulin, and ghrelin, modulate the orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide expression in hypothalamic nuclei. The anti-aging effects of caloric restriction have been explained from an evolutional viewpoint of the adaptive response of the neuroendocrine and metabolic response systems to maximize survival during periods of food shortage.

Author(s): 
Chiba, Takuya
Yamaza, Haruyoshi
Higami, Yoshikazu
Shimokawa, Isao
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Author(s): 
Poehlman, Eric T.
Publication Title: 
The New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may improve longevity, but relevant data are limited. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, prospective investigation involving 22,043 adults in Greece who completed an extensive, validated, food-frequency questionnaire at base line. Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet was assessed by a 10-point Mediterranean-diet scale that incorporated the salient characteristics of this diet (range of scores, 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating greater adherence).

Author(s): 
Trichopoulou, Antonia
Costacou, Tina
Bamia, Christina
Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Calorie restriction (CR) extends life span and retards age-related chronic diseases in a variety of species, including rats, mice, fish, flies, worms, and yeast. The mechanism or mechanisms through which this occurs are unclear. CR reduces metabolic rate and oxidative stress, improves insulin sensitivity, and alters neuroendocrine and sympathetic nervous system function in animals. Whether prolonged CR increases life span (or improves biomarkers of aging) in humans is unknown. In experiments of nature, humans have been subjected to periods of nonvolitional partial starvation.

Author(s): 
Heilbronn, Leonie K.
Ravussin, Eric
Publication Title: 
Advances in Gerontology = Uspekhi Gerontologii / Rossi?skai?a Akademii?a Nauk, Gerontologicheskoe Obshchestvo

A review of biochemical mechanisms underlying the known approaches to extension of lifespan and/or slowing down of ageing suggests that they all modify balances between generation of active oxygen and carbonyl species and the mechanisms that protect from their damaging effects or repair their consequences. A likely common target of the geroprotector effects of antioxidants, melatonin, and antidiabetic biguanides is the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

Author(s): 
Golubev, A. G.
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

Since the work of McCay in 1935, demonstrating the effect of energy restricted diet on the lifespan of rats, many studies have confirmed these findings in different species. Several mechanisms have been suggested, including among others, growth retardation, diminished apoptosis, decreased oxidative damage, altered glucose utilization, changes in gene expression, enhanced stress responsiveness and hormesis.

Author(s): 
Berner, Yitshal N.
Stern, Felicia
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The focus of this review is on current research involving long-term calorie restriction and the resulting changes observed in possible biomarkers of aging. Special emphasis will be given to the basic and clinical science studies which are currently investigating the effects of controlled, high-quality energy-restricted diets on both biomarkers of longevity and on the development of chronic diseases related to age and obesity in humans.

Author(s): 
Smith, Julie V.
Heilbronn, Leonie K.
Ravussin, Eric

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