generosity

Publication Title: 
Brain and Cognition

The present study investigates cortical structures associated with personality dimension of positivity (POS) by using a standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA), which provides EEG localization measures that are independent of the recording reference. Resting EEG and self-report measures of positivity, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and optimism were collected from 51 female undergraduates. EEG was recorded across 29 scalp sites. Anterior and posterior source alpha asymmetries of cortical activation were obtained by using sLORETA.

Author(s): 
Alessandri, Guido
Caprara, Gian Vittorio
De Pascalis, Vilfredo
Publication Title: 
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy

"Positive health," defined as a state beyond the mere absence of disease, was used as a model to examine factors for enhancing health despite extreme trauma. The study examined the United States' longest detained American prisoners of war, those held in Vietnam in the 1960s through early 1970s. Positive health was measured using a physical and a psychological composite score for each individual, based on 9 physical and 9 psychological variables. Physical and psychological health was correlated with optimism obtained postrepatriation (circa 1973).

Author(s): 
Segovia, Francine
Moore, Jeffrey L.
Linnville, Steven E.
Hoyt, Robert E.
Publication Title: 
Psychology and Aging

Previous studies have shown that some predictors of self-rated health (SRH) become more important with age, while others become less important. Although based on cross-sectional data, these findings are often interpreted as age-related changes in evaluation criteria. However, results could be due to cohort effects as well. We attempted to disentangle age and cohort effects by combining and comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a large-scale longitudinal survey.

Author(s): 
Spuling, Svenja M.
Wurm, Susanne
Tesch-Rˆmer, Clemens
Huxhold, Oliver
Publication Title: 
Journal of Adolescence

This study tested the mediating roles of cognitive reappraisal and attentional preferences in the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being among 712 adolescents. Results of the structural equation modeling revealed that the beneficial relation of hope to subjective happiness, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties was partially mediated by attention to positive information but not cognitive reappraisal.

Author(s): 
Yeung, Dannii Y.
Ho, Samuel M. Y.
Mak, Christine W. Y.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Adolescence

This paper examined the association between membership in profiles based on a shortened form of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI-S; McKay, Andretta, McGee, & Worrell, 2014) and other temporal and psychosocial variables. Participants consisted of 1620 adolescents attending high school in Northern Ireland. ZTPI-S scores had correlations with other temporal and psychosocial variables that were similar to those reported for ZTPI scores in previous studies.

Author(s): 
Worrell, Frank C.
McKay, Michael T.
Andretta, James R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Behavioral Medicine

Many variants that could be returned from genome sequencing may be perceived as ambiguous-lacking reliability, credibility, or adequacy. Little is known about how perceived ambiguity influences thoughts about sequencing results. Participants (n†=†494) in an NIH genome sequencing study completed a baseline survey before sequencing results were available. We examined how perceived ambiguity regarding sequencing results and individual differences in medical ambiguity aversion and tolerance for uncertainty were associated with cognitions and intentions concerning sequencing results.

Author(s): 
Taber, Jennifer M.
Klein, William M. P.
Ferrer, Rebecca A.
Han, Paul K. J.
Lewis, Katie L.
Biesecker, Leslie G.
Biesecker, Barbara B.
Publication Title: 
Psychology and Aging

Despite many studies on the age-related positivity effect and its role in visual attention, discrepancies remain regarding whether full attention is required for age-related differences to emerge. The present study took a new approach to this question by varying the contextual demands of emotion processing. This was done by adding perceptual distractions, such as visual and auditory noise, that could disrupt attentional control. Younger and older participants viewed pairs of happy-neutral and fearful-neutral faces while their eye movements were recorded.

Author(s): 
Noh, Soo Rim
Isaacowitz, Derek M.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Cardiology

Depression and anxiety are well-known to be associated with adverse health outcomes in cardiac patients. However, there has been less work synthesizing the effects of positive psychological constructs (e.g., optimism) on health-related outcomes in cardiac patients. We completed a systematic review of prospective observational studies using established guidelines. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO databases from inception to January 2014 was used to identify articles.

Author(s): 
Dubois, Christina M.
Lopez, Oriana Vesga
Beale, Eleanor E.
Healy, Brian C.
Boehm, Julia K.
Huffman, Jeff C.
Publication Title: 
The Spanish Journal of Psychology

Comparative optimism can be defined as a self-serving, asymmetric judgment of the future. It is often thought to be beneficial and socially accepted, whereas comparative pessimism is correlated with depression and socially rejected. Our goal was to examine the social acceptance of comparative optimism and the social rejection of comparative pessimism in two dimensions of social judgment, social desirability and social utility, considering the attributions of dysphoria and risk-taking potential (studies 2 and 3) on outlooks on the future.

Author(s): 
Milhabet, Isabelle
Le Barbenchon, Emmanuelle
Cambon, Laurent
Molina, Guylaine
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society

The clinical pattern of neuropathic pain, diagnosed using the quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain), could be partly mimicked in healthy volunteers after topical capsaicin application. However, similar to clinical neuropathic pain that develops in only a subgroup of patients who have a neurologic lesion, this attempt to mimick a neuropathic pain pattern succeeded only in a small fraction (18%) of healthy individuals.

Author(s): 
Dimova, Violeta
Oertel, Bruno G.
Kabakci, G¸lden
Zimmermann, Michael
Hermens, Hanneke
Lautenbacher, Stefan
Ultsch, Alfred
Lˆtsch, Jˆrn

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