Various concentrations of oxygen were used to determine the optimum culture medium PO2 for survival and proliferation of attached human and mouse fibroblasts grown from different inoculum sizes. When T-15 flasks were seeded with less than or equal to 2 X 10(4) cells (less than or equal to 1.3 X 10(3) cells/cm2), the highest plating efficiencies and cell yields were obtained with a culture medium PO2 of 40-60 mm Hg.
Caloric restriction (CR) may retard aging processes and extend lifespan in organisms by altering energy-metabolic pathways. In CR rodents, glucose influx into tissues is not reduced, as compared with control animals fed ad libitum (AL), although plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin are lower. Gene expression profiles in rodents have suggested that CR promotes gluconeogenesis and fatty acid biosynthesis in skeletal muscle. In the liver, CR promotes gluconeogenesis but decreases fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis.
Autophagy is a highly regulated intracellular process involved in the turnover of most cellular constituents and in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. It is well-established that the basal autophagic activity of living cells decreases with age, thus contributing to the accumulation of damaged macromolecules during aging. Conversely, the activity of this catabolic pathway is required for lifespan extension in animal models such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster.
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs (London, England: 2000)
SIRT1 (sirtuin 1) is the human ortholog of the yeast Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) protein, which is implicated in lifespan extension in model organisms, such as yeast, worms and flies. It is an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase with over two dozen known substrates that affect a wide variety of cellular processes, ranging from metabolism, cell cycle, growth and differentiation, inflammation, senescence, apoptosis, stress response and aging.
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Cancer cells metabolize glucose at elevated rates and have a higher sensitivity to glucose reduction. However, the precise molecular mechanisms leading to different responses to glucose restriction between normal and cancer cells are not fully understood. We analyzed normal WI-38 and immortalized WI-38/S fetal lung fibroblasts and found that glucose restriction resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in WI-38/S cells, whereas it induced lifespan extension in WI-38 cells.
The quest to understand why we age has given rise to numerous lines of investigation that have gradually converged to include metabolic control by mitochondrial activity as a major player. That is, the ideal balance between nutrient uptake, its transduction into usable energy, and the mitigation of damaging byproducts can be regulated by mitochondrial respiration and output (ATP, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and heat). Mitochondrial inefficiency through proton leak, which uncouples substrate oxidation from ADP phosphorylation, can comprise as much as 30% of the basal metabolic rate.
Although caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase lifespan in various animal models, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been revealed. We developed an in vitro system to mimic CR by reducing glucose concentration in cell growth medium which excludes metabolic factors and allows assessment of the effects of CR at the cellular and molecular level.
Caloric restriction (CR) has been extensively documented for its profound role in effectively extending maximum lifespan in many different species. However, the accurate mechanisms, especially at the cellular level, for CR-induced aging delay are still under intense investigation. An emerging technique, recently explored in our laboratory, provides precisely controllable caloric intake in a cultured cellular system that allows real-time observation and quantitative analysis of the impact of CR on the molecular cellular level during the aging processes.
Reduction of nutrient intake without malnutrition positively influences lifespan and healthspan from yeast to mice and exerts some beneficial effects also in humans. The AMPK-FoxO axis is one of the evolutionarily conserved nutrient-sensing pathways, and the FOXO3A locus is associated with human longevity. Interestingly, FoxO3A has been reported to be also a mitochondrial protein in mammalian cells and tissues. Here we report that glucose restriction triggers FoxO3A accumulation into mitochondria of fibroblasts and skeletal myotubes in an AMPK-dependent manner.