PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of poor health on job-search behavior and re-employment, and the mediating role of job-search cognitions and coping resources. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among unemployed persons receiving social security benefits in the Netherlands (n = 510). Self-rated health, self-esteem, mastery, job-search cognitions, and the intention to search for a job were measured at baseline. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate determinants of job-search behavior during a follow-up period of 6 months.
AIM: To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. METHOD: The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M?=?80.42 years, SD?=?7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref.
BACKGROUND: Ocular gene transfer clinical trials are raising hopes for blindness treatments and attracting media attention. News media provide an accessible health information source for patients and the public, but are often criticized for overemphasizing benefits and underplaying risks of novel biomedical interventions. Overly optimistic portrayals of unproven interventions may influence public and patient expectations; the latter may cause patients to downplay risks and over-emphasize benefits, with implications for informed consent for clinical trials.
This study is aimed at testing the measurement properties of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) for the assessment of dispositional optimism by employing item response theory (IRT) analyses. The LOT-R was administered to a large sample of 2,862 Italian adults. First, confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the theoretical conceptualization of the construct measured by the LOT-R as a single bipolar dimension. Subsequently, IRT analyses for polytomous, ordered response category data were applied to investigate the items' properties.
BACKGROUND: Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation has been introduced to clinical practice for several decades. It is unclear how internet and newspapers portray the use of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation.
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of poor mental health. Less research has focused on the relationship between PA and positive wellbeing. The study aims were to assess the prospective associations between PA and optimism, in both young and mid-aged women.
OBJECTIVE: Symptoms of depression and cancer-related fatigue (CRF) are common among breast cancer patients postchemotherapy and may seriously impair quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to assess the relationship between depression and CRF in breast cancer patients postchemotherapy and to examine their relationships to optimism and to threat and challenge appraisals. METHOD: Participants included 95 breast cancer patients (stages 1-3) 1 to 6 months after completion of chemotherapy.
Nefrologia: Publicacion Oficial De La Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia
INTRODUCTION: Dispositional optimism is a personal resource that determines the coping style and adaptive response to chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between dispositional optimism and coping strategies in patients with recent kidney transplantation and evaluate the differences in the use of coping strategies in accordance with the level of dispositional optimism. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Patients who were hospitalised in the nephrology department were selected consecutively after kidney transplantation was performed.
BACKGROUND: The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. METHODS: We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n?=?34), remitted depression (n?=?25), acute depression (n?=?21), and healthy controls (n?=?64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI.
AIM: The main objective of the present study was to examine the quality of life of older adults with cancer and investigate factors associated with it. Some practical problems experienced by older adults with cancer are introduced, such as changes in work situation, availability of caregivers and financial difficulties relative to medical expenditures. METHODS: A total of 339 patients aged 65 years or older who were treated for five major cancer diseases--colorectal, stomach, lung, liver or kidney cancer--participated in the present study.