Heart Rate

Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Caloric restriction (CR) retards aging in laboratory rodents. No information is available on the effects of long-term CR on physiologic markers of aging and longevity in humans. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker for cardiac autonomic functioning. The progressive decline in HRV with aging and the association of higher HRV with better health outcomes are well established. Heart rate variability assessment is a reliable tool by which the effects of CR on autonomic function can be assessed.

Author(s): 
Stein, Phyllis K.
Soare, Andreea
Meyer, Timothy E.
Cangemi, Roberto
Holloszy, John O.
Fontana, Luigi
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between autonomic nervous system and adrenocortical reactivity to laboratory stressors and buccal cell telomere length (BTL) in children. METHODS: The study sample comprised 78 children, aged 5 to 6 years, from a longitudinal cohort study of kindergarten social hierarchies, biologic responses to adversity, and child health. Buccal cell samples and reactivity measures were collected in the spring of the kindergarten year. BTL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction, as the telomere-to-single-copy gene ratio.

Author(s): 
Kroenke, Candyce H.
Epel, Elissa
Adler, Nancy
Bush, Nicole R.
Obradovic, Jelena
Lin, Jue
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Stamperdahl, Juliet Lise
Boyce, W. Thomas
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between autonomic nervous system and adrenocortical reactivity to laboratory stressors and buccal cell telomere length (BTL) in children. METHODS: The study sample comprised 78 children, aged 5 to 6 years, from a longitudinal cohort study of kindergarten social hierarchies, biologic responses to adversity, and child health. Buccal cell samples and reactivity measures were collected in the spring of the kindergarten year. BTL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction, as the telomere-to-single-copy gene ratio.

Author(s): 
Kroenke, Candyce H.
Epel, Elissa
Adler, Nancy
Bush, Nicole R.
Obradovic, Jelena
Lin, Jue
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Stamperdahl, Juliet Lise
Boyce, W. Thomas
Publication Title: 
Obesity Research

OBJECTIVE: A previous study in our laboratory (Moyer et al., Obes Res. 1994;2:255-62 found that, in response to uncontrollable laboratory stress, women with a high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) had higher cortisol reactivity, poorer coping skills, and lower anger responses than women with low WHR. We aimed to compare high WHR men's stress responses to these women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The current study examined cortisol reactivity and psychological data of 27 healthy high WHR men exposed to the same laboratory challenges as the women from our previous study.

Author(s): 
Epel, E. E.
Moyer, A. E.
Martin, C. D.
Macary, S.
Cummings, N.
Rodin, J.
Rebuffe-Scrive, M.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology

Some personality traits have key importance for health because they can affect the maintenance and evolution of different disorders with a high prevalence in older people, including stress pathologies and diseases. In this study we investigated how two relevant personality traits, optimism and pessimism, affect the psychophysiological response of 72 healthy participants (55 to 76 years old) exposed to either a psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a control task; salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR) and situational appraisal were measured.

Author(s): 
Puig-Perez, Sara
Villada, Carolina
Pulopulos, Matias M.
Almela, Mercedes
Hidalgo, Vanesa
Salvador, Alicia
Publication Title: 
Emotion (Washington, D.C.)

Emerging evidence suggests that high resting heart rate variability in the respiratory frequency band, or respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) may capture individual differences in the capacity to engage in situationally appropriate regulation of affect and behavior. The authors therefore hypothesized that high RSA may act as a protective factor against difficulties controlling negative affect and hostile behaviors in conflicts with romantic partners in highly rejection-sensitive individuals--a population otherwise vulnerable to these responses.

Author(s): 
Gyurak, Anett
Ayduk, Ozlem
Publication Title: 
Developmental Psychology

This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge-as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved-is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress vocalizations. Adults who demonstrated low levels of secure base knowledge showed greater electrodermal reactivity and stronger declines in their feelings of love while they listened to a recording of an infant crying.

Author(s): 
Groh, Ashley M.
Roisman, Glenn I.
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychologia

Research on the neural mechanisms of face identity constitutes a fruitful method to explore the affective contributions to face processing. Here, we investigated central and peripheral electrophysiological indices associated with the perception of loved faces. Subjects viewed black-and-white photographs of faces that belonged to one of five categories: loved ones, famous people, unknown people, babies, and neutral faces from the Eckman and Friesen system. Subcategories of loved faces included romantic partner, parents, siblings, second-degree relatives, and friends.

Author(s): 
Vico, Cynthia
Guerra, Pedro
Robles, Humbelina
Vila, Jaime
Anllo-Vento, Lourdes
Publication Title: 
Biological Psychology

A major problem in recent neuroscience research on the processing of loved familiar faces is the absence of evidence concerning the elicitation of a genuine positive emotional response (love). These studies have two confounds: familiarity and arousal. The present investigation controlled for both factors in female university students. Two categories of loved faces were chosen: one with higher familiarity but lower emotionality (fathers) and the other with higher emotionality but lower familiarity (romantic partners). Unfamiliar and baby faces were used as control faces.

Author(s): 
Guerra, Pedro
Campagnoli, Rafaela R.
Vico, Cynthia
Volchan, Eliane
Anllo-Vento, Lourdes
Vila, Jaime
Publication Title: 
Emotion (Washington, D.C.)

Although dozens of studies have examined the autonomic nervous system (ANS) aspects of negative emotions, less is known about ANS responding in positive emotion. An evolutionary framework was used to define five positive emotions in terms of fitness-enhancing function, and to guide hypotheses regarding autonomic responding. In a repeated measures design, participants viewed sets of visual images eliciting these positive emotions (anticipatory enthusiasm, attachment love, nurturant love, amusement, and awe) plus an emotionally neutral state.

Author(s): 
Shiota, Michelle N.
Neufeld, Samantha L.
Yeung, Wan H.
Moser, Stephanie E.
Perea, Elaine F.

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