Ageing in immune reactivity is described at the level of lymphoid cells, at that of lymphoid organs and organ function, and at that of regulation of cell and organ function. Apart from shifts in numbers of lymphoid cell subpopulations, the decrease in communication capacity between lymphoid cell populations and in binding of invaders (like bacteria) is an important aspect of ageing. These aspects may contribute to the decreased immune reactivity to invaders and the enhanced incidence of immune reactions to self-components (autoimmune reactivity).
Throughout life, there is an aging of the immune system that causes impairment of its defense capability. Prevention or delay of this deterioration is considered crucial to maintain general health and increase longevity. We evaluated whether dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 could enhance the immune response in the elderly. This multi-center, double-blind, and placebo controlled study enrolled 61 elderly volunteers who were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or probiotics. Each capsule of probiotics contained at least 3?◊?10(7)? L.
The low percentages of naÔve T cells commonly observed in elderly people are thought to be causally associated with mortality, primarily from infectious disease, and are taken as a hallmark of "immunosenescence". Whether low levels of naive cells actually do associate with mortality has, however, not been tested in longitudinal studies. Here, we present correlations between peripheral T-cell phenotypes and 8-year survival in individuals from the population-based prospective Leiden 85-plus Study.
The B cell arm of adaptive immunity undergoes significant modifications with age. Elderly people are characterized by impaired B cell responses reflected in a reduced ability to effectively respond against viruses and bacteria. Alterations of immunity with advancing age (immunosenescence) have been widely studied in centenarians who are considered a good example of successful aging. In recent years, attention has shifted to centenarian offspring (CO) as a model of people genetically advantaged for healthy aging and longevity.
Oxidative damage by free radicals, which is the basis for the free radical theory of aging, has been well investigated within the context of oxidant/antioxidant balance. Age-associated disorders are believed to be associated with the time-dependent shift in the antioxidant/prooxidant balance in favor of oxidative stress. In this brief review, the importance of dietary antioxidant intervention on longevity and age-associated changes in bodily functions and diseases are discussed.
In critically reviewing the sources of evidence connecting psyche and brain with the immune system, the authors include a brief review of current knowledge of the immune system, its interactions with the neuroendocrine system, and other factors influencing its regulation. These include developmental stages, aging, rhythmicity, and a variety of exogenous influences. The need for developing further information about normal base lines is emphasized.
Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
This article reviews evidence for the hypothesis that psychological interventions can modulate the immune response in humans and presents a series of models depicting the psychobiological pathways through which this might occur. Although more than 85 trials have been conducted, meta-analyses reveal only modest evidence that interventions can reliably alter immune parameters. The most consistent evidence emerges from hypnosis and conditioning trials. Disclosure and stress management show scattered evidence of success. Relaxation demonstrates little capacity to elicit immune change.
International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology
The effects of self-hypnosis training on immune function and mood were examined in medical students at exam time. Hypnosis involved relaxation and imagery directed at improved immune function and increased energy, alertness and concentration. Hypotheses were made about activated and withdrawn personality differences. Eight high and eight low hypnotically susceptible participants were given 10 sessions of hypnosis, one live and nine tape-recorded, and were compared with control subjects (N=12). CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and CD56 NK cells and blood cortisol were assayed. Life-style, activated vs.
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Four important investigations were reported during the latter part of 2001. All address the biological impact of hypnotic interventions. Three of these studies focus specifically on if and how hypnotic interventions affect immune functions. A range of immune assays is employed, from allergic response to blood-based assays of immune functioning during nonlaboratory periods of stress. In all 3 cases, measurable shifts in immune functioning are associated with hypnotic interventions.