Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Fetal growth and development is dependent upon the nutritional, hormonal and metabolic environment provided by the mother. Any disturbance in this environment can modify early fetal development with possible long-term outcomes as demonstrated by extensive work on 'programming'. Growth restriction resulting from a deficit in tissue/organ cell number (as measured by tissue DNA content) is irrecoverable. However, when the cell size (or cell protein content) is reduced, the effects on growth may not be permanent.
Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
To ask whether social medicine still matters may seem to be in poor taste at a symposium to honor Martin Cherkasky, but social medicine has always had the courage to take on difficult questions. There is all the more reason to do so when its legitimacy is challenged. The extraordinary findings emerging from the human genome project will revolutionize diagnostic and therapeutic methods in medicine. The power of medical interventions, for good and for harm, will increase enormously.
The modification of ageing by nutritional intervention is well recognised. Post-weaning diet restriction is the only widely reproducible method to slow ageing, but the effects of prenatal and preweaning diet restriction have been less well characterised. There is some evidence that diet restriction instituted in utero or shortly after birth may have an opposite effect and be associated with increased ageing, and recent work suggests that it may shorten lifespan.
Developing countries face the double menace of still prevalent infectious diseases and increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) with epidemic proportions in the near future, linked to demographic changes (expansion and ageing), and to urbanisation and lifestyle modifications. It is estimated that the elderly population will increase globally (over 80% during the next 25 years), with a large share of this rise in the developing world because of expanding populations. Increasing longevity prolongs the time exposure to risk factors, resulting in a greater probability of CVD.
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Internationale Zeitschrift F¸r Vitamin- Und Ern‰hrungsforschung. Journal International De Vitaminologie Et De Nutrition
Edible fats are important food components that enhance palatability by providing texture and enhancing flavour. They also provide essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins. In addition, we enjoy eating foods containing fat, but there is also a negative side; excessive consumption may not be good for health, but we still have doubts to answer the question, What are the right amounts and types of fat we should use and eat?. The consumer is now aware of the relationship between dietary fat and health, but there is a great deal of confusion.
The question has arisen in the literature as to whether dietary restriction (DR) will have a significant effect on human longevity. I initially use literature data to estimate the energy costs necessary to carry a human from conception to caloric self-sufficiency to be approximately 12.6 x 10(6)kcal, which amounts to approximately 25% of the the two parents' combined daily caloric intake for 20 years. Similar levels of financial costs are expended in developed societies. Thus, human reproductive costs are high enough to permit a DR response.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health / Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health
Japan has the longest life expectancy at birth (LEB) in the world. Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, previously had the highest longevity indices in the country. However, the latest LEB for men in Okinawa is no higher than the national average. The purpose of this study is to examine why the longevity indices in Okinawa were once the highest in Japan, and to examine the reasons for their recent decline. In 1990, in Okinawa, the age-adjusted death rates (ADR) of the three leading causes of death were lower than their national averages.
This annual review focuses on invertebrate model organisms, which shed light on new mechanisms in aging and provide excellent systems for both genome-wide and in-depth analysis. This year, protein interaction networks have been used in a new bioinformatic approach to identify novel genes that extend replicative lifespan in yeast. In an extended approach, using a new, human protein interaction network, information from the invertebrates was used to identify new, candidate genes for lifespan extension and their orthologues were validated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
Effects of in utero and early life conditions on adult health and disease such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are well documented by epidemiological and clinical observations. Animal models including intrauterine artery ligation, maternal restriction of iron, protein or general caloric intake, provide invaluable tools to understand mechanisms linking early growth and later diseases in adult life. In addition, the rodent model of maternal protein restriction has revealed that longevity can be influenced either positively or negatively by early growth patterns.
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis (HD) in infants is usually used when peritoneal dialysis (PD) has failed. We describe our experience with HD, outlining the morbidity, complications, and outcomes for infants weighing less than 10†kg managed with HD for more than 6†months over a 10-year period. METHODS: A retrospective review of the clinical notes was conducted to collect demographic information, anthropometric data, dietary history, site and form of vascular access, details of HD prescription, complications, and outcomes.