BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A gradual loss of telomeric repeat sequences with aging previously has been noted in normal adult tissues, and this process has been implicated in cell senescence. No data exist that address the rate of telomere shortening in normal human cells within families or early in life. To address these questions, we measured telomere lengths in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from 75 members of 12 families and in a group of unrelated healthy children who were 5-48 months old. Here we report the surprising observation that rates of telomere attrition vary markedly at different ages.
A study of very early onset Huntington's disease (VEOHD) has shown that at least 38% of gene-carrying sibs also develop symptoms before the age of 10, thus improving the genetic risk for those sibs who remain healthy. The prevalence of VEOHD among sibs shows that mutation during spermatogenesis is most unlikely to account for these uncommon cases. The data suggest that two mechanisms contribute to VEOHD: modification by many genes (individually of small effect), and an epigenetic mechanism occurring when transmission is through a series of males.
The diversity of theories regarding children's development is commensurate with the enormity of the task of seeking ordering designs for explaining behavioral and psychic ontogeny in infants, children, and adults. The purpose of this paper is to look at these developmental theories as epigenetic stages themselves. I shall suggest that the next stage in the epigenesis of theories of development is to see variability and disorder on a continuum with order and stability, as a constant dialectic that moves development along, whether at the level of the cell or at the level of fantasy.
Epidemiological evidence links exposure to stress hormones during fetal or early postnatal development with lifetime prevalence of cardiac, metabolic, auto-immune, neurological and psychiatric disorders. This has led to the concept of 'developmental programming through stress'. Importantly, these effects (specifically, hypertension, hyperglycaemia and neurodevelopmental and behavioural abnormalities) can be reproduced by exposure to high glucocorticoid levels, indicating a crucial role of glucocorticoids in their causation.
Radially oriented ensembles of neurons and their projections, termed minicolumns, are hypothesized to be the basic microcircuit of mammalian cerebral cortex. Minicolumns can be divided into a core and a peripheral neuropil space compartment. The core of minicolumns is constrained by the migratory path of pyramidal cells and their attendant radially oriented projections. Variation in minicolumnar morphometry and density is observed both within and across species.
BACKGROUND: Do genetic or epigenetic factors play a role in making some individuals more vulnerable than others to loss of attachment figures or other traumatic experiences? METHODS: DNA was obtained from growth phase entrained Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) transformed lymphoblast cell lines from 143 adopted participants. Genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) was determined, and methylation ratios for each of the C-phosphate-G (CpG) residues were assessed using quantitative mass spectroscopy.
SHANK3 is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses, and plays important roles in the formation, maturation, and maintenance of synapses. Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene causes a developmental disorder, 22q13.3 deletion syndrome (known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome), that is characterized by severe expressive language and speech delay, hypotonia, global developmental delay, and autistic behavior.