Intention

Publication Title: 
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics

Recent developments in biogerontology--the study of the biology of ageing--suggest that it may eventually be possible to intervene in the human ageing process. This, in turn, offers the prospect of significantly postponing the onset of age-related diseases. The biogerontological project, however, has met with strong resistance, especially by deontologists. They consider the act of intervening in the ageing process impermissible on the grounds that it would (most probably) bring about an extended maximum lifespan--a state of affairs that they deem intrinsically bad.

Author(s): 
Capitaine, Laura
Devolder, Katrien
Pennings, Guido
Publication Title: 
Nutrition Research Reviews

Overweight and obesity are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, although the range of body weights that is optimal for health is controversial. It is less clear whether weight loss benefits longevity and hence whether weight reduction is justified as a prime goal for all individuals who are overweight (normally defined as BMI>25 kg/m2). The purpose of the present review was to examine the evidence base for recommending weight loss by diet and lifestyle change as a means of prolonging life.

Author(s): 
Harrington, Mary
Gibson, Sigrid
Cottrell, Richard C.
Publication Title: 
Christian Bioethics

Disagreement over the legitimacy of direct sterilization continues within Catholic moral debate, with painful and at times confusing ramifications for Catholic healthcare systems. This paper argues that the medical profession should be construed as a key moral authority in this debate, on two grounds. First, the recent revival of neo-Aristotelianism in moral philosophy as applied to medical ethics has brought out the inherently moral dimensions of the history and current practice of medicine.

Author(s): 
Cowdin, Daniel M.
Tuohey, John F.
Publication Title: 
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics

The use of terminal sedation to control the intense discomfort of dying patients appears both to be an established practice in palliative care and to run counter to the moral and legal norm that forbids health care professionals from intentionally killing patients. This raises the worry that the requirements of established palliative care are incompatible with moral and legal opposition to euthanasia. This paper explains how the doctrine of double effect can be relied on to distinguish terminal sedation from euthanasia.

Author(s): 
Boyle, Joseph
Publication Title: 
Medicinska Etika a Bioetika: Casopis Ustavu Medicinskej Etiky a Bioetiky = Medical Ethics & Bioethics: Journal of the Institute of Medical Ethics & Bioethics

We are all called to make moral decisions, not only about preserving life and health, but also about accepting our death and dying. There are situations, when it is morally right, and indeed obligatory, to allow a dying person to die in peace and dignity. But there is a world of difference between allowing a peaceful death, and deliberately setting out to bring death of the person either by acts of commission (s.c. 'active euthanasia'), or by acts of omission (s.c. 'passive euthanasia').

Author(s): 
Narbekovas, Andrius
Meilius, Kazimieras
Publication Title: 
Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of poor health on job-search behavior and re-employment, and the mediating role of job-search cognitions and coping resources. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among unemployed persons receiving social security benefits in the Netherlands (n = 510). Self-rated health, self-esteem, mastery, job-search cognitions, and the intention to search for a job were measured at baseline. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate determinants of job-search behavior during a follow-up period of 6 months.

Author(s): 
Carlier, B. E.
Schuring, M.
van Lenthe, F. J.
Burdorf, A.
Publication Title: 
Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association

OBJECTIVE: Dispositional optimism and risk perceptions are each associated with health-related behaviors and decisions and other outcomes, but little research has examined how these constructs interact, particularly in consequential health contexts. The predictive validity of risk perceptions for health-related information seeking and intentions may be improved by examining dispositional optimism as a moderator, and by testing alternate types of risk perceptions, such as comparative and experiential risk.

Author(s): 
Taber, Jennifer M.
Klein, William M. P.
Ferrer, Rebecca A.
Lewis, Katie L.
Biesecker, Leslie G.
Biesecker, Barbara B.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine

BACKGROUND: Information avoidance is a defensive strategy that undermines receipt of potentially beneficial but threatening health information and may especially occur when threat management resources are unavailable. PURPOSE: We examined whether individual differences in information avoidance predicted intentions to receive genetic sequencing results for preventable and unpreventable (i.e., more threatening) disease and, secondarily, whether threat management resources of self-affirmation or optimism mitigated any effects.

Author(s): 
Taber, Jennifer M.
Klein, William M. P.
Ferrer, Rebecca A.
Lewis, Katie L.
Harris, Peter R.
Shepperd, James A.
Biesecker, Leslie G.
Publication Title: 
Appetite

The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N?=?770; T2: N?=?510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers.

Author(s): 
Sproesser, Gudrun
Klusmann, Verena
Schupp, Harald T.
Renner, Britta
Publication Title: 
Journal of Behavioral Medicine

Many variants that could be returned from genome sequencing may be perceived as ambiguous-lacking reliability, credibility, or adequacy. Little is known about how perceived ambiguity influences thoughts about sequencing results. Participants (n†=†494) in an NIH genome sequencing study completed a baseline survey before sequencing results were available. We examined how perceived ambiguity regarding sequencing results and individual differences in medical ambiguity aversion and tolerance for uncertainty were associated with cognitions and intentions concerning sequencing results.

Author(s): 
Taber, Jennifer M.
Klein, William M. P.
Ferrer, Rebecca A.
Han, Paul K. J.
Lewis, Katie L.
Biesecker, Leslie G.
Biesecker, Barbara B.

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