Motivation

Publication Title: 
Journal of Behavioral Medicine

Yoga has become increasingly popular in the US and around the world, yet because most yoga research is conducted as clinical trials or experiments, little is known about the characteristics and correlates of people who independently choose to practice yoga. We conducted a systematic review of this issue, identifying 55 studies and categorizing correlates of yoga practice into sociodemographics, psychosocial characteristics, and mental and physical well-being.

Author(s): 
Park, Crystal L.
Braun, Tosca
Siegel, Tamar
Publication Title: 
Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology

This article presents a systematic review of the literature examining the relationship between self-talk and performance. "Second-generation questions" regarding potential mediators and moderators of the self-talk-performance relationship were also examined. A total of 47 studies were analyzed. Results indicated beneficial effects of positive, instructional, and motivational self-talk for performance. Somewhat surprisingly, two evidence-based challenges to popular current viewpoints on self-talk emerged. First, negative self-talk did not impede performance.

Author(s): 
Tod, David
Hardy, James
Oliver, Emily
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: There are high expectations regarding the potential for the communication of DNA-based disease risk estimates to motivate behaviour change. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of communicating DNA-based disease risk estimates on risk-reducing behaviours and motivation to undertake such behaviours.

Author(s): 
Marteau, Theresa M.
French, David P.
Griffin, Simon J.
Prevost, A. T.
Sutton, Stephen
Watkinson, Clare
Attwood, Sophie
Hollands, Gareth J.
Publication Title: 
Psychology, Health & Medicine

The Health Belief Model provides a framework to understand motivators for volunteering for medical research. Motivators can take the form of social and personal benefits. In this systematic review of review articles, we contrast motivators of participation in actual cancer trials to those in actual HIV vaccine trials. We retrieved eight review articles from 2000 to 2012 examining motivators to participation in actual cancer trials.

Author(s): 
Dhalla, Shayesta
Poole, Gary
Publication Title: 
Journal of Behavioral Medicine

Yoga has become increasingly popular in the US and around the world, yet because most yoga research is conducted as clinical trials or experiments, little is known about the characteristics and correlates of people who independently choose to practice yoga. We conducted a systematic review of this issue, identifying 55 studies and categorizing correlates of yoga practice into sociodemographics, psychosocial characteristics, and mental and physical well-being.

Author(s): 
Park, Crystal L.
Braun, Tosca
Siegel, Tamar
Publication Title: 
Explore (New York, N.Y.)

CONTEXT: Although acupuncture and homeopathy both have a theoretical background that refers to immaterial forces difficult to verify, they are nevertheless used and accepted as effective treatments by many individuals. OBJECTIVE: We intended to investigate whether and how users of acupuncture and homeopathy differ with respect to sociodemographic data, adaptive coping strategies, and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

Author(s): 
Büssing, Arndt
Ostermann, Thomas
Raak, Christa
Matthiessen, Peter F.
Publication Title: 
Physiology & Behavior

A growing body of research on caloric restriction (CR) in many species of laboratory animals suggests that underfeeding leads to better health and longevity in the calorically-restricted animal (e.g., see [[34]. J.P. Pinel, S. Assanand and D.R. Lehman, (2000). Hunger, eating and ill health. Am Psychol, 55, 1105-1116.], for a review). Although some objections have been raised by scientists concerned about negative psychological and behavioral sequelae of such restriction, advocates of CR continue to urge people to adopt sharply reduced eating regimes in order to increase their longevity.

Author(s): 
Polivy, Janet
Herman, C. Peter
Coelho, Jennifer S.
Publication Title: 
Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association

This experiment compared the effectiveness of gain-versus loss-framed messages to persuade women to obtain mammography screening. One hundred and thirty-three women 40 years and older and not adhering to current guidelines for obtaining mammography screening were assigned randomly to view either gain-framed (emphasizing the benefits of obtaining mammography) or loss-framed (emphasizing the risks of not obtaining mammography) persuasive videos that were factually equivalent. Attitudes and beliefs were measured before and immediately following the intervention.

Author(s): 
Banks, S. M.
Salovey, P.
Greener, S.
Rothman, A. J.
Moyer, A.
Beauvais, J.
Epel, E.
Publication Title: 
Behavioural Pharmacology

Drug addiction is a progressive, relapsing disease comprised of interlocking stages of disordered motivation. Numerous animal models describing various stages of the addiction process have been developed over the past few decades, providing considerable advantages for the modeling of drug addiction compared with other complex psychiatric disease states. Escalation of drug self-administration has emerged as a widely accepted operant conditioning model of excessive drug intake.

Author(s): 
Edwards, Scott
Koob, George F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Palliative Care

The principle of double effect is widely used to permit the administration of narcotics and sedatives with the intent to palliate dying patients, even though the administration of these drugs may cause hastening of death. In recent medical literature, this principle's validity has been severely criticized, causing health care providers to fear providing good palliative care. Most of the criticisms levelled at the principle of double effect arise from misconceptions about its purpose and origins.

Author(s): 
Hawryluck, L. A.
Harvey, W. R.

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