It has been recognized that the remarkable decline in infant mortality and the extension in human lifespan involving both developing and developed countries alike, has been influenced by social and economic developments and public health orientated measures (such as clean water and sewerage) rather more than by developments in medical research. However, the identification of important disease risk factors for a number of common conditions such as smoking, solar exposure, dietary fat and alcohol has led to further reductions in disease prevalence and mortality, at least in some countries.
Definitions of psychological abuse are reviewed and a new definition proposed, operationalized as an extension of an existing measure of childhood, the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA). This semistructured, investigator-based interview is designed for use with adults to collect retrospective accounts of childhood adverse experience. The CECA extension identifies nine subtypes of psychological abuse, with a single global severity rating.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis in Korea is increasing in conjunction with the adoption of western dietary pattern, extension of lifespan, and advances in diagnostic modalities. The clinical characteristics of colonic diverticulosis seem to be gradually becoming similar to those of Western societies. Therefore, factors associated with the clinical characteristics of colonic diverticulosis in Korea were investigated.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
BACKGROUND: A significant component of the ability to survive to exceptional old age may be familial. This study assessed the prevalence of age-related diseases in the offspring of centenarians. METHODS: The health histories of centenarian offspring (n=177) and controls (n=166) were assessed from 1997-2000 using a cross-sectional study design. The offspring of 192 centenarian subjects enrolled in the nationwide New England Centenarian Study were recruited and enrolled.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative risk and population attributable risk (PAR) of death with dementia of varying type and severity and other risk factors in a population of exceptional longevity. METHODS: Deaths were monitored over 5 years using vital statistics records and newspaper obituaries in 355 individuals with prevalent dementia and 4,328 without in Cache County, UT. Mean age was 83.3 (SD 7.0) years with dementia and 73.7 (SD 6.8) years without. History of coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and other life-shortening illness was ascertained from interviews.
Cigarette smoking has been clearly linked to the most common causes of death in the elderly and contributes to the higher death rate and disability rate associated with many chronic illnesses that are common in this age group. The combination of smoking along with other risk factors like hypertension and diabetes increase high frequency disease, and disability as well as adding to an increase in mortality rate.
BACKGROUND: Asian Indian women have a higher rate of coronary artery disease (CAD) than do other ethnic groups, despite similar conventional risk factors and lipid profiles. Smaller high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) particle size is associated with reduced cardiac protection or even an increased risk of CAD. Exceptional longevity correlates better with larger HDL-C particle sizes.
As the elderly population is increasing rapidly, there is a lot of scientific interest in clarifying the differential life-style, genetic, biochemical and molecular factors contributing to mortality or exceptional longevity. Within the framework of the ZINCAGE project, 249 old (60-85 years) and nonagenarian Greek subjects (>/=85 years old) were recruited and anthropometrical, blood and biochemical indices as well as blood pressure measurements were obtained.
OBJECTIVE: To test whether cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) genotype (VV homozygosity for I405V) is associated with preservation of cognitive function in addition to its association with exceptional longevity. METHODS: We studied Ashkenazi Jews with exceptional longevity (n = 158; age 99.2 +/- 0.3 years) for the associations of CETP VV genotype and lipoprotein phenotype, using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). To confirm the role of CETP in a younger cohort, we studied subjects from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS) for associations between CETP VV and cognitive impairment.
The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the exceptional longevity patterns in Croatia. The prevalence of nonagenarians (aged 90 years or more) and centenarians (100 years or more) was calculated from the 1953-2001 census data. The data were analyzed with chi-square test and trend analysis. The results indicate steady and significant increasing trends in both age groups, more pronounced in women.