Primates

Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Many of the most distinctive attributes of our species are a product of our brains. To understand the function, development, variability, and evolution of the human brain, we must engage with the field of neuroscience. Neuroscientific methods can be used to investigate research topics that are of special interest to anthropologists, such as the neural bases of primate behavioral diversity, human brain evolution, and human brain development. Traditional neuroscience methods had to rely on investigation of postmortem brains, as well as invasive studies in living nonhuman primates.

Author(s): 
Rilling, James K.
Publication Title: 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

Darwin was struck by the many similarities between humans and other primates and believed that these similarities were the product of common ancestry. He would be even more impressed by the similarities if he had known what we have learned about primates over the last 50 years. Genetic kinship has emerged as the primary organizing force in the evolution of primate social organization and the patterning of social behaviour in non-human primate groups.

Author(s): 
Silk, Joan B.
Publication Title: 
Evolutionary Anthropology

The study of cooperation is rich with theoretical models and laboratory experiments that have greatly advanced our knowledge of human uniqueness, but have sometimes lacked ecological validity. We therefore emphasize the need to tie discussions of human cooperation to the natural history of our species and its closest relatives, focusing on behavioral contexts best suited to reveal underlying selection pressures and evolved decision rules.

Author(s): 
Jaeggi, Adrian V.
Gurven, Michael
Publication Title: 
Proceedings. Biological Sciences

Helping, i.e. behaviour increasing the fitness of others, can evolve when directed towards kin or reciprocating partners. These predictions have been tested in the context of food sharing both in human foragers and non-human primates. Here, we performed quantitative meta-analyses on 32 independent study populations to (i) test for overall effects of reciprocity on food sharing while controlling for alternative explanations, methodological biases, publication bias and phylogeny and (ii) compare the relative effects of reciprocity, kinship and tolerated scrounging, i.e.

Author(s): 
Jaeggi, Adrian V.
Gurven, Michael
Publication Title: 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

In this paper, we consider three hypotheses to account for the evolution of the extraordinary capacity for large-scale cooperation and altruistic social preferences within human societies. One hypothesis is that human cooperation is built on the same evolutionary foundations as cooperation in other animal societies, and that fundamental elements of the social preferences that shape our species' cooperative behaviour are also shared with other closely related primates.

Author(s): 
Silk, Joan B.
House, Bailey R.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

The present study was conducted to test predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging assessing reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress resistance in cultured fibroblasts from 13 primate species ranging in body size from 0.25 to 120 kg and in longevity from 20 to 90 years.

Author(s): 
Csiszar, Anna
Podlutsky, Andrej
Podlutskaya, Natalia
Sonntag, William E.
Merlin, Steven Z.
Philipp, Eva E. R.
Doyle, Kristian
Davila, Antonio
Recchia, Fabio A.
Ballabh, Praveen
Pinto, John T.
Ungvari, Zoltan
Publication Title: 
Presse Médicale (Paris, France: 1983)

Calorie restriction increases longevity in rodents, delays the onset of certain diseases and has positive effects on ageing. Studies are ongoing in non-human primates. Eight persons following such a diet for 2 years reacted as anticipated (loss of body weight and fat, decrease in glycaemia and body temperature, etc.). Calorie restriction perhaps teaches us more on the means of resisting malnutrition than on ageing in normal dietary conditions. Calorie restriction is a tool for research, but it should not be recommended by practitioners, notably in elderly patients.

Author(s): 
Le Bourg, Eric
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

We have recently shown in non-human primates that caloric restriction (CR) initiated during adulthood can delay T-cell aging and preserve naïve CD8 and CD4 T cells into advanced age. An important question is whether CR can be initiated at any time in life, and whether age at the time of onset would modulate the beneficial effects of CR. In the current study, we evaluated the impact of CR started before puberty or during advanced age on T-cell senescence and compared it to the effects of CR started in early adulthood.

Author(s): 
Messaoudi, Ilhem
Fischer, Miranda
Warner, Jessica
Park, Buyng
Mattison, Julie
Ingram, Donald K.
Totonchy, Thomas
Mori, Motomi
Nikolich-Zugich, Janko

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Primates