# quantum theory

The possibility of classifying and unifying some of the recent entanglement models for homeopathy is discussed. Unification involves combining the previous GHZ/WQT-based entanglement model, itself a fusion of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) three-particle entanglement and a generalised version of quantum theory, called Weak Quantum Theory (WQT), with Walach's semiotic model involving double entanglement. The new combined model invokes a 'geometry' of patient-practitioner-remedy (PPR) entanglement embedded in a therapeutic state space.

OBJECTIVE: To review the progress the author has made over the past 5 years in understanding coherence effects in water and living systems using quantum mechanical models. BACKGROUND: The implications of existing theoretical work on water are discussed. METHODS: Available techniques for the measurement of frequencies imprinted in water are described or referenced.

The possibility that well-documented types of reaction to the prescribed homeopathic medicine may be outcomes of PPR entanglement is discussed within the context of a previously described model for homeopathy that incorporates GHZ three-particle entanglement and Weak Quantum Theory.

BACKGROUND: One of the principle obstacles to homeopathy's general acceptance has been its perceived lack of sound theoretical basis within accepted deterministic bio-medical thought. This impasse might be circumvented if instead, appeal was made to the nondeterministic concepts of the physical sciences, e.g., quantum theory and its notions of entanglement, nonlocality, and uncertainty; Weak Quantum Theory (WQT) and Patient-Practitioner-Remedy (PPR) Entanglement representing two new complementary strands of thought with the potential to create a new theoretical basis for homeopathy.

INTRODUCTION: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have yet to deliver unequivocal results demonstrating the efficacy (or otherwise) of homeopathic remedies and individualized homeopathic prescribing. This could be caused by an implicit assumption inherent in RCT methodology that specific effects of a remedy and any nonspecific effects of consultation are independent of each other. Reported here is a theoretical investigation of the consequences arising from this assumption proving to be false.

INTRODUCTION: In two recent studies of double-blind placebo-controlled homeopathic provings, entanglement was reported to have occurred between verum and placebo arms of the trials. This contrasts directly with the entanglement-disrupting effects of blinding, recently proposed as the reason for the failure of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to demonstrate unequivocally the efficacy of homeopathy. It is proposed here that such entanglement between remedy and placebo during these double-blind placebo controlled provings is the direct result of the blinding process.

BACKGROUND: Quantum theory's notions of non-locality and entanglement have previously informed attempts to model the therapeutic process. Of these, Weak Quantum Theory (WQT) and Patient- Practitioner-Remedy (PPR) entanglement are developing into mathematically- based models of homeopathy. OBJECTIVE: The present study attempted to identify fundamental concepts within quantum field theory (QFT) that could be used to broaden the scope of PPR entanglement models, prior to constructing a more rigorous mathematical treatment.

In order to fully comprehend its therapeutic mode of action, homeopathy might require both 'local' bio-molecular mechanisms, such as memory of water and 'non-local' macro-entanglement, such as patient-practitioner-remedy (PPR) descriptions.

This paper discusses the nature of the active ingredient of homeopathic ultramolecular dilutions in terms of quantitative physics. First, the problem of the nature of an active ingredient in ultramolecular dilutions is analysed leading to the recognition of the necessity of characterizing the active ingredient as a non-local quality. Second, non-locality in quantum mechanics, which is used as a paradigm, is formally presented. Third, a generalization of quantum mechanics is considered, focussing on the consequences of weakening of the axioms.

INTRODUCTION: Could theoretical links exist between homeopathy and conventional medicine? In homeopathy, disturbance of the self-regulating Vital Force (Vf) results in dis-ease as multileveled symptom expression. Treatment aids the Vf as it attempts to restore holistic balance. Conventional medicine (allopathy) deterministically considers external agents (viruses, bacteria, etc.) or internal biochemical imbalances as disease causes. Treatment is geared to eradicating causative factors, sometimes at the expense of the homeostatic immune system.