Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Inclusion of vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopherol) in the culture medium for human diploid cells greatly prolongs their in vitro lifespan. The addition of 100 mug of DL-alpha-tocopherol per ml of medium has allowed us to culture WI-38 cells for more than 100 population doublings to date. (These cells normally have an in vitro lifespan of 50 +/- 10 population doublings.) Cells at the 100th population doubling have a normal diploid karyotype, appear to behave in all other respects like young WI-38 cells, and are still actively dividing.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a critical regulator of many physiological functions, ranging from longevity to immunity. However, little is known about the role of IGF-1 in natural killer cell development and function. Here, we identify an essential role for IGF-1 in the positive regulation of human natural killer cell development and cytotoxicity. Specifically, we show that human natural killer cells have the ability to produce IGF-1 and that differential endogenous IGF-1 expression leads to disparate cytotoxicity in human primary natural killer cells.
At some point during biosynthesis of the antimalarial artemisinin in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua, the Delta11(13) double bond originating in amorpha-4,11-diene is reduced. This is thought to occur in artemisinic aldehyde, but other intermediates have been suggested. In an effort to understand double bond reduction in artemisinin biosynthesis, extracts of A. annua flower buds were investigated and found to contain artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13) double bond reductase activity.
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
Essential oils from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree oil) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender oil) are commonly used to treat minor health problems. Tea-tree oil possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and is increasingly used for skin problems. Lavender oil, traditionally used as an antiseptic agent, is now predominantly used as a relaxant, carminative, and sedative in aromatherapy. Despite their growing use no data are available on their mutagenic potential.
The study of whole patterns of changes in protein expression and their modifications, or proteomics, presents both technological advances as well as formidable challenges to biological researchers. Nutrition research and the food sciences in general will be strongly influenced by the new knowledge generated by the proteomics approach. This review examines the different aspects of proteomics technologies, while emphasizing the value of consideration of "traditional" aspects of protein separation.
PURPOSE: The purpose was to characterize the properties of a proteinase activity associated with betaA3-crystallin, which was isolated from the alpha-crystallin fraction of human lenses. METHODS: An inactive, Arg-bond hydrolyzing proteinase in the alpha-crystallin fraction, which was isolated from the water soluble (WS) protein fraction of 60- to 70-year-old human lenses, was activated by sodium deoxycholate treatment.
Clinical trials and animal studies have suggested that lycopene, the red carotenoid found in tomatoes, might be useful for the prevention of prostate cancer in the diet or as a dietary supplement through a variety of chemoprevention mechanisms. As most mechanism of action studies have used prostate cancer cells or males with existing prostate cancer, we investigated the effects of lycopene on protein expression in human primary prostatic epithelial cells.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Dysmenorrhea is directly related to elevated PGF(2alpha) levels. It is treated with nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Western medicine. Since NSAIDs produce many side effects, Chinese medicinal therapy is considered as a feasible alternative medicine. Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf.) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating dysmenorrhea. However, the relationship between smooth muscle contraction and adlay extracts remains veiled.