OBJECTIVES: Identify the words and phrases that authors used to describe time-to-event outcomes of dental treatments in patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic handsearch of 50 dental journals with the highest Citation Index for 2008 identified articles reporting dental treatment with time-to-event statistics (included "case" articles, n = 95), without time-to-event statistics (active "control" articles, n = 91), and all other articles (passive "control" articles n = 6796).
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a positive treatment effect of individualized homeopathic treatment for acute childhood diarrhea, but sample sizes were small and results were just at or near the level of statistical significance. Because all three studies followed the same basic study design, the combined data from these three studies were analyzed to obtain greater statistical power. METHODS: Three double blind clinical trials of diarrhea in 242 children ages 6 months to 5 years were analyzed as 1 group.
The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is seen in approximately 5% of patients with AIDS. In recent years, the incidence has increased due to an extension of the average lifespan of HIV-infected individuals. In this article we describe the histological and clinical features of 45 patients with HIV-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma seen at the Academic Medical Centre between 1984 and 1991. There were 43 men and 2 women with a median age of 40 years. Most patients had high-grade B-cell lymphoma; 85% had extranodal sites. Prognosis was poor: overall median survival was only 3.8 months.
Accessible and readily utilized software, tables and approximation formulae have been developed to estimate power and sample size for studies of time to event (survival times) when the survival times are assumed to be exponential. These methods can markedly misestimate power when the distribution is Weibull and not exponential. The Weibull distribution with increasing hazard is common in aging research, especially when the whole life span of the subjects is of interest.
There is a considerable variation in individual lifespan among cancer patients with identical diagnosis. We used damped exponential approximation, which includes both single- and double-compartment extension, for radiobiological assessment of survival curves among cases of breast, lung and oro-pharyngeal cancer. It was shown that in certain cases (breast--T2N1-2M0T3N1-2M0 and oro-pharyngeal cancer--T2-4N1-3M0) the curves can be identified with the two compartments which in turn are associated with different rates of mortality.
C57BL/6J mice carrying the Min allele of Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) develop numerous adenomas along the entire length of the intestine and consequently die at an early age. This short lifespan would prevent the accumulation of somatic genetic mutations or epigenetic alterations necessary for tumor progression. To overcome this limitation, we generated F(1) Apc(Min/+) hybrids by crossing C57BR/cdcJ and SWR/J females to C57BL/6J Apc(Min/+) males. These hybrids developed few intestinal tumors and often lived longer than 1 year.
Hormesis occurs when a low level stress elicits adaptive beneficial responses that protect against subsequent exposure to severe stress. Recent findings suggest that mild oxidative and thermal stress can extend lifespan by hormetic mechanisms. Here we show that the botanical pesticide plumbagin, while toxic to C. elegans nematodes at high doses, extends lifespan at low doses. Because plumbagin is a naphthoquinone that can generate free radicals in vivo, we investigated whether it extends lifespan by activating an adaptive cellular stress response pathway. The C.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of early childhood death worldwide and no therapy is available today. Many drugs, especially histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), increase SMN levels. As all HDACi tested so far only mildly ameliorate the SMA phenotype or are unsuitable for use in humans, there is still need to identify more potent drugs. Here, we assessed the therapeutic power of the pan-HDACi JNJ-26481585 for SMA, which is currently used in various clinical cancer trials.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
The choice of a phenotype is critical for the study of a complex genetically regulated process, such as aging. To date, most of the twin and family studies have focused on broad survival measures, primarily age at death or exceptional longevity. However, on the basis of recent studies of twins and families, biological age has also been shown to have a strong genetic component, with heritability estimates ranging from 27% to 57%.