An extension of the mathematical model of immunological tolerance including two categories of B and T helper cells, each having a different lifespan, is presented. The simulated recovery from tolerance is compared with experimental data on B and T helper cell tolerance to human gamma globulin (HGG) induced in adult mice. The performed simulation runs suggest the conclusion that in this case it seems impossible to incorporate a high ratio of both, long-lived B cells and/or short-lived T helper cells, if good agreement with the available experimental data should be preserved.
Antibody production is an important feature of the vertebrate immune system. Antibodies neutralize and clear pathogens, thereby protecting against infectious diseases. Such humoral immunity has great longevity, often persisting for the host's lifetime. Long-lived humoral immunity depends on help provided by CD4(+) T cells, namely T follicular helper (TFH) cells, which support the differentiation of antigen-specific B cells into memory and plasma cells.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are amongst the most widely studied cells in a variety of immune-mediated conditions, including transplantation and Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD), cancer and autoimmunity; indeed, there is great interest in the tolerogenic potential of Treg-based therapy. Consequently, the need to establish the mechanisms that determine Treg survival and longevity, in addition to developing new tools to monitor these parameters, is paramount.
This study tested the effects of hypnosis on the immune response. High and low hypnotizable Ss were exposed to hypnosis, relaxation or control conditions. Blood samples obtained before treatment and twice thereafter were subjected to flow cytometry analysis. Significant alteration of the immune response as measured by B-cells and helper T-cells was shown only for highly hypnotizable Ss exposed to hypnosis.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our previous study showed that SM905, a novel artemisinin derivative, exhibited potent immunosuppressive activity. In this study, we evaluate preventive and therapeutic effect of SM905 on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice, and investigate its mechanisms both in inflammatory and autoimmune aspects of the disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: CIA was induced by type II bovine collagen (CII) in DBA/1 mice.
In chronic infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis, pathogen growth and immunopathology are affected by the induction of a proper balanced Th1/Th2 response to the pathogen and by antigen-triggered activation-induced T cell death. Here, by using S. japonicum infection or schistosome antigens-immunized mouse model, or antigens in vitro stimulation, we report that during the early stage of S.
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin and its derivatives were reported to possess strong regulatory effects on inflammation and autoimmune diseases. This study was designed to examine the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of SM934, a water-soluble artemisinin analogue, on lupus-prone female NZB × NZW F(1) mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NZB/W F(1) mice were treated orally with SM934 for 3 or 6 months respectively to investigate the effect on clinical manifestations and immunological correlates.
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is an important derivative of the herb medicine Artemisia annua L., used in ancient China. DHA is currently used worldwide to treat malaria by killing malaria-causing parasites. In addition to this prominent effect, DHA is thought to regulate cellular functions, such as angiogenesis, tumor cell growth, and immunity. Nonetheless, how DHA affects T cell function remains poorly understood. We found that DHA potently suppressed Th cell differentiation in vitro.
This study examines the relationship between religiosity and the affective and immune status of 106 HIV-seropositive mildly symptomatic gay men (CDC stage B). All men completed an intake interview, a set of psychosocial questionnaires, and provided a venous blood sample. Factor analysis of 12 religiously oriented response items revealed two distinct aspects to religiosity: religious coping and religious behavior.
The incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are rising. According to some estimates >1 million new cases of IBD arise in the United States annually. The conventional therapies available for IBD range from anti-inflammatory drugs to immunosuppressive agents, but these therapies generally fail to achieve satisfactory results due to their side effects.