Time Factors

Publication Title: 
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

It has been shown that human diploid cells from various donor ages can be arrested in an essentially nonmitotic state by reducing the serum concentration of the incubation medium from 10 to 0.5 percent. Cells incubated at this serum level maintained the population distribution that was present when the cells reached confluency. The population, which has 90 percent of the cells in the G1 phase of the division cycle, was not static and exhibited a low level of mitotic activity with prolonged interdivision times.

Author(s): 
Dell'Orco, R. T.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Previously we reported [Packer, L. & Smith, J.R. (1974) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 4763-4767] that the lifespan of WI-38 human diploid fibroblasts in vitro was significantly increased by continuously growing the cell cultures in the presence of vitamin E(dl-alpha-tocopherol), but in 19 subsequent subcultivation series we were unable to reproduce these findings. While vitamin E is incorporated into the cells and is able to act effectively as an antioxidant, apparantly is intracellular antioxidant properties alone do not routinely result in an increase of cell lifespan.

Author(s): 
Packer, L.
Smith, J. R.
Publication Title: 
Folia Biologica

An extension of the mathematical model of immunological tolerance including two categories of B and T helper cells, each having a different lifespan, is presented. The simulated recovery from tolerance is compared with experimental data on B and T helper cell tolerance to human gamma globulin (HGG) induced in adult mice. The performed simulation runs suggest the conclusion that in this case it seems impossible to incorporate a high ratio of both, long-lived B cells and/or short-lived T helper cells, if good agreement with the available experimental data should be preserved.

Author(s): 
Dolezal, J.
Hraba, T.
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Accessible and readily utilized software, tables and approximation formulae have been developed to estimate power and sample size for studies of time to event (survival times) when the survival times are assumed to be exponential. These methods can markedly misestimate power when the distribution is Weibull and not exponential. The Weibull distribution with increasing hazard is common in aging research, especially when the whole life span of the subjects is of interest.

Author(s): 
Heo, M.
Faith, M. S.
Allison, D. B.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics

PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility, toxicity, cosmetic outcome, and local control of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone without whole breast external beam irradiation for early-stage breast carcinoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between June 1997 and August 1999, 32 women diagnosed with a total of 33 AJCC Stage I/II breast carcinomas underwent surgical breast excision and postoperative irradiation using HDR brachytherapy interstitial implantation as part of a multi-institutional clinical Phase I/II protocol.

Author(s): 
Wazer, David E.
Berle, Lisa
Graham, Roger
Chung, Maureen
Rothschild, Janice
Graves, Theresa
Cady, Blake
Ulin, Kenneth
Ruthazer, Robin
DiPetrillo, Thomas A.
Publication Title: 
Nature

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model for studying the genetics of ageing, with over 50 life-extension mutations known so far. However, little is known about the pathobiology of ageing in this species, limiting attempts to connect genotype with senescent phenotype. Using ultrastructural analysis and visualization of specific cell types with green fluorescent protein, we examined cell integrity in different tissues as the animal ages.

Author(s): 
Herndon, Laura A.
Schmeissner, Peter J.
Dudaronek, Justyna M.
Brown, Paula A.
Listner, Kristin M.
Sakano, Yuko
Paupard, Marie C.
Hall, David H.
Driscoll, Monica
Publication Title: 
Cancer Biology & Therapy

Studies were conducted to directly test whether the introduction of telomerase protects cancer-prone human mammary epithelial cells from chromosomal instability and spontaneous immortalization. Using a model for Li Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), infection of human telomerase resulted in maintenance of telomere lengths, extension of in vitro lifespan, and prevention of spontaneous immortalization.

Author(s): 
Elmore, Lynne W.
Turner, Kristi C.
Gollahon, Lauren S.
Landon, Melissa R.
Jackson-Cook, Colleen K.
Holt, Shawn E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Apheresis

Extension of the storage period of apheresis platelets to seven or ten days may be possible with the implementation of screening for bacteria. This, however, may impair platelet quality, and additive compounds that improve storage parameters would be desirable. Apheresis platelets were harvested using the Cobe LRS device. Part of the product was aliquoted into two CLX bags, 60 ml into each, on day 0. L-carnitine (LC) to a final concentration of 5 mM was added to one container and saline to the other.

Author(s): 
Sweeney, Joseph D.
Kouttab, Nicola M.
Arduini, Arduino
Publication Title: 
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

Telomere is the repetitive DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes, which shortens progressively with cell division and limits the replicative potential of normal human somatic cells. L-carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been reported to delay the replicative senescence, and extend the lifespan of cultured human diploid fibroblasts. In this work, we studied the effect of carnosine on the telomeric DNA of cultured human fetal lung fibroblast cells.

Author(s): 
Shao, Lan
Li, Qing-Huan
Tan, Zheng
Publication Title: 
Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the processing time and neuromuscular delay required to extract and process sensory information from the ankle in order to coordinate an upper extremity movement sequence. METHODS: Nineteen able-bodied subjects were tested on their ability to perform a motor task that involved extension of their left index finger when their left ankle was passively plantar flexed at random velocities through a predetermined target angle. RESULTS: We found that the able-bodied subjects were able to adjust their finger responses up to ankle velocities of 70 degrees /s (300 ms).

Author(s): 
Shields, Richard K.
Madhavan, Sangeetha
Cole, Keith R.
Brostad, Jared D.
Demeulenaere, Jeanne L.
Eggers, Christopher D.
Otten, Patrick H.

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