Visual Perception

Publication Title: 
Nature

The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis.

Author(s): 
Kim, Eun Bae
Fang, Xiaodong
Fushan, Alexey A.
Huang, Zhiyong
Lobanov, Alexei V.
Han, Lijuan
Marino, Stefano M.
Sun, Xiaoqing
Turanov, Anton A.
Yang, Pengcheng
Yim, Sun Hee
Zhao, Xiang
Kasaikina, Marina V.
Stoletzki, Nina
Peng, Chunfang
Polak, Paz
Xiong, Zhiqiang
Kiezun, Adam
Zhu, Yabing
Chen, Yuanxin
Kryukov, Gregory V.
Zhang, Qiang
Peshkin, Leonid
Yang, Lan
Bronson, Roderick T.
Buffenstein, Rochelle
Wang, Bo
Han, Changlei
Li, Qiye
Chen, Li
Zhao, Wei
Sunyaev, Shamil R.
Park, Thomas J.
Zhang, Guojie
Wang, Jun
Gladyshev, Vadim N.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic

Human self-awareness is not easily reducible to known principles of neurochemistry, neurophysiology, or neuropsychology. The author encourages a broader, less restrictive exploration of the nature of self-awareness as it relates to brain-injured patients. He elucidates the role of symbols in neuropsychological rehabilitation and suggests that work, love, and play are the primary symbols of normality that can reconcile brain-injured patients to their neurological condition.

Author(s): 
Prigatano, G. P.
Publication Title: 
Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology

At the conclusion of a Symposium on 15-16 December 2000 organized in his honour, Michel Fardeau gave a short talk, in which he tried to epitomize the essential philosophy of his medical life. Having been privileged to attend that meeting, amongst Michel's many other friends from various parts of the world, we asked his permission to publish those remarks in this journal. We hope that the readers of Acta Myologica will feel the same emotion that we had when we listened to Michel's deeply moving words, from the heart.

Author(s): 
Fardeau, M.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Science

Gaze direction is a vital communicative channel through which people transmit information to each other. By signaling the locus of social attention, gaze cues convey information about the relative importance of objects, including other people, in the environment. For the most part, this information is communicated via patterns of gaze direction, with gaze shifts signaling changes in the objects of attention. Noting the relevance of gaze cues in social cognition, we speculated that gaze shifts may modulate people's evaluations of others.

Author(s): 
Mason, Malia F.
Tatkow, Elizabeth P.
Macrae, C. Neil
Publication Title: 
Perception

We examined whether it is possible to identify the emotional content of behaviour from point-light displays where pairs of actors are engaged in interpersonal communication. These actors displayed a series of emotions, which included sadness, anger, joy, disgust, fear, and romantic love. In experiment 1, subjects viewed brief clips of these point-light displays presented the right way up and upside down. In experiment 2, the importance of the interaction between the two figures in the recognition of emotion was examined.

Author(s): 
Clarke, Tanya J.
Bradshaw, Mark F.
Field, David T.
Hampson, Sarah E.
Rose, David
Publication Title: 
Body Image

This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a mean relationship length of about 14 years, provided ratings of both their own and their partner's physical attractiveness. Results support the theory that individuals hold positive illusions about their partner's physical attractiveness.

Author(s): 
Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel
Barelds, Dick P. H.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Reports

This study compared the scripts of love among 60 prison inmates diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder and those of 40 inmates without an Antisocial Personality Disorder diagnosis but low antisocial tendencies, and a control group of 100 adult students in extramural or evening secondary schools without Antisocial Personality Disorder traits. The study focused on emotional knowledge about love of the group with Antisocial Personality Disorder, as they present lack of capacity for love. The study was done to examine how they perceive love and how much knowledge they have about love.

Author(s): 
Gawda, Barbara
Publication Title: 
Emotion (Washington, D.C.)

Does the influence of close relationships pervade so deeply as to impact visual awareness? Results from two experiments involving heterosexual romantic couples suggest that they do. Female partners from each couple performed a rapid detection task where negative emotional distractors typically disrupt visual awareness of subsequent targets; at the same time, their male partners rated attractiveness first of landscapes, then of photos of other women.

Author(s): 
Most, Steven B.
Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe
Graber, Elana
Belcher, Amber
Smith, C. Veronica
Publication Title: 
PloS One

We have known for decades that social support is associated with positive health outcomes. And yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. The link between social support and positive health outcomes is likely to depend on the neurophysiological regulatory mechanisms underlying reward and defensive reactions. The present study examines the hypothesis that emotional social support (love) provides safety cues that activate the appetitive reward system and simultaneously inhibit defense reactions.

Author(s): 
Guerra, Pedro
S·nchez-Adam, Alicia
Anllo-Vento, Lourdes
RamÌrez, Isabel
Vila, Jaime
Publication Title: 
Perceptual and Motor Skills

This study investigated the effect of various forms of smiling (closed smile, upper smile, or broad smile) on person perception. Brazilian undergraduates (N = 330) judged a photograph of a male or female stimulus person in three age ranges (young, middle-aged, and old) and smiling or not. 7-point scales were used to measure respondents' perception of the stimulus persons on various attributes (attractiveness, happiness, extroversion, sympathy, kindness, submission, ambition, and intelligence).

Author(s): 
Otta, E.
Folladore Abrosio, F.
Hoshino, R. L.

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