1. The pharmacokinetic and effect kinetic properties of oral (p.o.), intramuscular (i.m.), and intrarectal (i.r.) artemether (5 mg kg-1) were compared in a crossover study in eight healthy adult volunteers. Plasma concentrations of artemether (AM) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with reductive mode electrochemical detection (h.p.l.c.-ECD), and plasma antimalarial activity in vitro (effect) was assessed on the same samples by a sensitive bioassay (BA). 2.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
A thermostable suppository of artesunate (artesunic acid) has been developed. In Gabon, 12 children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria received two administrations of this suppository in a 4-hr interval. Parasitemia and fever were then measured and the plasma levels of artesunate and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin, were determined by means of a reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography method using reductive electrochemical detection.
BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the only fixed, artemisinin-based combination antimalarial drug which is registered internationally and deployed on a large scale. Absorption of the hydrophobic lipophilic lumefantrine component varies widely between individuals and is greatly increased by fat coadministration; but patients with acute malaria are frequently nauseated and anorexic, making dietary advice difficult to comply with.
BACKGROUND: Adherence to antimalarial drug regimens is improved by simple dosing. If the fixed antimalarial drug combination artemether-lumefantrine (AL) could be given once daily, this should improve adherence and thus effectiveness and lower the risk of selecting for resistance. METHODS: In an open randomized study, 43 patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were given equivalent doses of AL with 200 ml flavoured milk either as the conventional twice-daily regimen or as a single daily dose for 3 days.
Synergistic liquid-liquid extractive spectrophotometric determination of gold(III) using 1-(2',4'-dinitro aminophenyl)-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,4-dihydro pyrimidine-2-thiol [2',4'-dinitro APTPT] has been described. Equal volumes (5cm(3)) of the 2',4'-dinitro APTPT (0.02molL(-1)) in the presence of pyridine (0.5molL(-1)) form an orange-red coloured ternary complex with gold(III) of molar ratio 1:1:1 at pH 1.8-2.4 with 5min of shaking. The absorbance of coloured organic layer in 1,2-dichloroethane is measured spectrophotometrically at 445nm against reagent blank.
Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
The development of new synthesis methods for monodispersed nanocrystals using cheap and nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents and renewable materials remains a challenge to the scientific community. The present work reports a new green method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Four different ayurvedic arishtams are used for the reduction of Au(3+) to Au nanoparticles. This method is simple, efficient, economic and nontoxic. Gold nanoparticles having different sizes in the range from 15 to 23 nm could be obtained.
The aim of the present study was to determine millimeter wave (MMW) absorption by blood vessels traversing the subcutaneous fat layer of murine skin. Most calculations were performed using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. We used two types of models: (1) a rectangular block of multilayer tissue with blood vessels traversing the fat layer and (2) cylindrical models with circular and elliptical cross-sections simulating the real geometry of murine limbs.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by a series of pathological changes that range from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The objective of this study is to describe changes in global gene expression associated with the progression of human NAFLD. This study is focused on the expression levels of genes responsible for the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of drugs. Differential gene expression between three clinically defined pathological groups-normal, steatosis, and NASH-was analyzed.
Two different strategies for investigating the likely fate, after ingestion, of natural, bioactive berry constituents (anthocyanins and other non-nutritive flavonoids) are compared. A model of the human gastrointestinal tract (TIM-1) that mimicked the biological environment from the point of swallowing and ingestion through the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (but not the colon) was used to monitor the stability and bioaccessibility of anthocyanins from both maqui berry and wild blueberry.
The absorption profile of rapid-acting insulin analogs delivered subcutaneously is slow compared with physiological insulin. Shorter time to peak and shorter duration of insulin action are important steps toward reducing high postprandial blood glucose concentrations in diabetes therapy and are critical for the development of a closed-loop insulin delivery system. Many attempts have been made to develop more rapid-acting insulins.