BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of autophagy increases the lifespan of organisms from yeast to flies. In contrast to the lifespan extension effect in lower organisms, it has been reported that overexpression of unc-51-like kinase 3 (ULK3), the mammalian homolog of autophagy-specific gene 1 (ATG1), induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts. Therefore, we assessed whether the activation of autophagy would genuinely induce premature senescence in human cells.
Reversible acetylation has emerged as a key post-translational modification of proteins. Although the number of acetylated proteins is rapidly growing, the ways in which protein acetyltransferases and deacetylases connect with extracellular stimuli remain unclear. Recently, a regulatory network has emerged that controls the expression and activity of SIRT1, a mammalian class-III protein deacetylase. SIRT1 is an important regulator of metabolism, senescence, cancer and, possibly, longevity and is connected with crucial stress-responsive signal-transduction pathways.
The enzyme sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a critical regulator of many cellular functions, including energy metabolism. However, the precise mechanisms that modulate SIRT1 activity remain unknown. As SIRT1 activity in vitro was recently found to be negatively regulated by interaction with the deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC1) protein, we set out to investigate whether DBC1 regulates SIRT1 activity in vivo. We found that DBC1 and SIRT1 colocalized and interacted, and that DBC1 modulated SIRT1 activity, in multiple cell lines and tissues.
BACKGROUND: In a variety of organisms, including mammals, caloric restriction improves metabolic status and lowers the incidence of chronic-degenerative diseases, ultimately leading to increased lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that knockout mice for Eps8, a regulator of actin dynamics, display reduced body weight, partial resistance to age- or diet-induced obesity, and overall improved metabolic status. Alteration in the liver gene expression profile, in behavior and metabolism point to a calorie restriction-like phenotype in Eps8 knockout mice.
Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have highlighted the plasticity of the somatic epigenome, particularly through demonstrations of direct lineage reprogramming of adult mouse and human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neurons (iNs) under defined conditions. However, human cells appear to be less plastic and have a higher epigenetic hurdle for reprogramming to both iPSCs and iNs. Here, we show that SH2B adaptor protein 1?
We used a collection of 708 prospectively collected autopsied brains to assess the methylation state of the brain's DNA in relation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that the level of methylation at 71 of the 415,848 interrogated CpGs was significantly associated with the burden of AD pathology, including CpGs in the ABCA7 and BIN1 regions, which harbor known AD susceptibility variants. We validated 11 of the differentially methylated regions in an independent set of 117 subjects.
Two independent epigenome-wide association studies of Alzheimerís disease cohorts have identified overlapping methylation signals in four loci, ANK1, RPL13, RHBDF2 and CDH23, not previously associated with Alzheimerís disease. These studies also suggest that epigenetic changes contribute more to Alzheimerís disease than expected.
IMPORTANCE: Dysfunction related to ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of major psychosis has been well established by the work of multiple groups across several decades, including the widely replicated downregulation of GAD1. Prior gene expression and network analyses within the human hippocampus implicate a broader network of genes, termed the GAD1 regulatory network, in regulation of GAD1 expression.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with GABA neuron dysfunction in the hippocampus, particularly the stratum oriens of sector CA3/2. A gene expression profile analysis of human postmortem hippocampal tissue followed by a network association analysis had shown a number of genes differentially regulated in SZ, including the epigenetic factors HDAC1 and DAXX. To characterize the contribution of these factors to the developmental perturbation hypothesized to underlie SZ, lentiviral vectors carrying short hairpin RNA interference (shRNAi) for HDAC1 and DAXX were used.
DNA methylation (DNAm) levels lend themselves for defining an epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the 'epigenetic clock'. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cerebellar epigenetic age acceleration identifies five significant (P<5.0 ◊ 10(-8)) SNPs in two loci: 2p22.1 (inside gene DHX57) and 16p13.3 near gene MLST8 (a subunit of mTOR complex 1 and 2). We find that the SNP in 16p13.3 has a cis-acting effect on the expression levels of MLST8 (P=6.9 ◊ 10(-18)) in most brain regions. In cerebellar samples, the SNP in 2p22.1 has a cis-effect on DHX57 (P=4.4 ◊ 10(-5)).