BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a very common chronic illness affecting 10% to 40% of children worldwide and its prevalence among children has significantly increased over the last two decades. Prevalence and severity are related to age, with children of school age most commonly affected. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and adverse event profile of antihistamines (oral or topical) used as an adjunct to topical nasal steroids for intermittent and persistent allergic rhinitis in children.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are a common cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections. Persons may have asymptomatic colonization with MRSA in the nares, axillae, perineum, or groin. Since MRSA colonization often precedes infection, and infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, there is great interest in preventing the transmission of MRSA and decolonizing persons who harbor these bacteria. We provide an evidence-based review of MRSA decolonization agents.
OBJECTIVE: To apply the Bradford Hill criteria, which are widely used to establish causality between an environmental agent and disease, to evaluate the relationship between over-the-counter intranasal zinc gluconate therapy and anosmia. DESIGN: Patient and literature review applying the Bradford Hill criteria on causation. SETTING: University of California, San Diego, Nasal Dysfunction Clinic.
Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery: Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases affecting adults. It is the most common chronic disease in children in the United States today and the fifth most common chronic disease in the United States overall. AR is estimated to affect nearly 1 in every 6 Americans and generates $2 to $5 billion in direct health expenditures annually. It can impair quality of life and, through loss of work and school attendance, is responsible for as much as $2 to $4 billion in lost productivity annually.
This is the first experimental study on the effect of oxytocin administration on the neural processing of facial stimuli conducted with female participants that uses event-related potentials (ERPs). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects design, we studied the effects of 16 IU of intranasal oxytocin on ERPs to pictures combining performance feedback with emotional facial expressions in 48 female undergraduate students. Participants also reported on the amount of love withdrawal they experienced from their mothers.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Well-functioning romantic relationships are important for long-term health and well being, but they are often difficult to sustain. This difficulty arises (in part) because of an underlying tension between our psychobiological natures, culture/environment, and modern love and relationship goals. One possible solution to this predicament is to intervene at the level of psychobiology, enhancing partners' interpersonal connection through neurochemical modulation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The biological mechanisms underlying long-term partner bonds in humans are unclear. The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems. However, whether it plays a similar role in humans has as yet not been established. Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers.
It has been suggested that the degree of compassion-the feeling of warmth, understanding and kindness that motivates the desire to help others, is modulated by observers' views regarding the target's vulnerability and suffering. This study tested the hypothesis that as compassion developed to protect vulnerable kinships, hormones such as oxytocin, which have been suggested as playing a key role in 'tend-and-befriend' behaviors among women, will enhance compassion toward women but not toward men.
This study examined if the prosocial effects of oxytocin (OT) extend from individuals to a generalized other who is in need. Participants played a series of economic games to earn money and were presented with an opportunity to donate a portion of their earnings to charity. OT did not significantly increase the decision to donate, but among the 36% of participants who did donate, people infused with OT were found to donate 48% more to charity than those given a placebo.
Among its many roles in body and brain, oxytocin influences social behavior. Understanding the precise nature of this influence is crucial, both within the broader theoretical context of neurobiology, social neuroscience and brain evolution, but also within a clinical context of disorders such as anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism. Research exploring oxytocin's role in human social behavior is difficult owing to its release in both body and brain and its interactive effects with other hormones and neuromodulators.