Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
In male rats bearing carrageenan-induced paw edema twenty-four hours after treatment with carrageenan the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis was prolonged and the rate of hepatic hexobarbital metabolism was inhibited. By contrast, treatment with carrageenan potentiates zoxazolamine paralysis time and inhibits zoxazolamine metabolism in both male and female rats. Thus, sex-related differences in the rats bearing carrageenan-induced paw edema and inhibition of drug metabolism are apparently substrate dependent.
The influence of gender on the stimulatory and depressant effects of ethanol was examined in C57BL/6 (C57) mice. In Experiment 1, locomotor activity was assessed in young (2-month-old) male and female mice injected intraperitoneally (IP) with stimulatory (1.5 g/kg) or depressant (2.5 g/kg) doses of ethanol. Both the stimulatory and the depressive effects of ethanol were greater in young male than female C57 mice, and the gender difference was unrelated to blood ethanol concentration (BEC).
Following in vivo treatment with carrageenan, sex-related differences in alteration of hepatic drug metabolism were found in the rat. In adult male rats, marked decreases were observed in hepatic 9000 x g supernatant cytochrome P-450 content and in the biotransformation of hexobarbital, aminopyrine, ethylmorphine, and meperidine. Hexobarbital hypnosis was significantly prolonged by carrageenan treatment in intact and testectomized animals as compared to their respective controls.
Effects of hypnotic level, affect valence and cerebral asymmetry on reaction time (RT) in the discrimination of Ekman and Friesen's (1978) stimuli of angry and happy faces were studied in counterbalanced conditions of waking and hypnosis. Assessed previously on two hypnotic susceptibility scales [Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility; Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSSC)], non-depressed subjects were 16 low (0-4 SHSSC) and 17 highly (10-12 SHSSC) hypnotizable, right-handed college students.
INTRODUCTION: Females experience greater liver damage, have reduced brain size, and have greater memory deficits than do males with a similar history of alcoholism. Females have higher peak alcohol levels and faster elimination rates than males. Our goal was to study sex differences in the response of young ethanol-naïve outbred Long-Evans rats to acute ethanol exposure so that we may better understand why females are more sensitive to alcohol toxicity than males.
BACKGROUND: Target-controlled infusions (TCI) are used to simplify administration and increase precision of i.v. drugs during general anaesthesia. However, there is a limited relationship between preset targets and measured concentrations of drugs and between measured concentrations and measures of brain function, such as the bispectral index (BIS). METHODS: We set out to evaluate the performance of TCI devices for propofol (Diprifusor) and remifentanil (Remifusor, prototype), during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 21 patients.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Both the bispectral and the patient state indices are derived from the electroencephalogram and have been proposed as a measure of the same clinical target, the hypnotic component of anaesthesia. The present study evaluated whether there is concordance between the bispectral and the patient state indices with regard to end-points measured simultaneously in patients undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia.
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)-sensitive (GHB-S) and GHB-resistant (GHB-R) rats have been selectively bred for their opposite sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effect of GHB. This opposite sensitivity has been found to generalize to the GABA(B) receptor agonist, baclofen. A control line [named GHB-control (GHB-C)] has been derived from the foundation stock of GHB-S and GHB-R rats. GHB-C rats have been bred without any evaluation of their sensitivity to GHB.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine to what extent the use of electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring leads to an adaptation of the target-controlled infusion (TCI) concentration of propofol during propofol anaesthesia with different doses of remifentanil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: With ethics committee approval 60 patients (27-69 years old) with American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (ASA) I-III received anaesthestics with propofol (TCI, Diprifusor, AstraZeneca, Wedel, Deutschland) and 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 microg/kg body weight remifentanil, respectively (groups 1-3).
The immediate efficacies of two oral dosage regimens of artemisinin were investigated in 77 male and female adult Vietnamese falciparum malaria patients randomly assigned to treatment with either 500 mg of artemisinin daily for 5 days (group A; n = 40) or artemisinin at a dose of 100 mg per day for 2 days, with the dose increased to 250 mg per day for 2 consecutive days and with a final dose of 500 mg on the fifth day (group B; n = 37). Parasitemia was monitored every 4 h.