Animals, Genetically Modified

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

When replete with zinc and copper, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated mutant SOD proteins can protect motor neurons in culture from trophic factor deprivation as efficiently as wild-type SOD. However, the removal of zinc from either mutant or wild-type SOD results in apoptosis of motor neurons through a copper- and peroxynitrite-dependent mechanism. It has also been shown that motor neurons isolated from transgenic mice expressing mutant SODs survive well in culture but undergo apoptosis when exposed to nitric oxide via a Fas-dependent mechanism.

Author(s): 
Sahawneh, Mary Anne
Ricart, Karina C.
Roberts, Blaine R.
Bomben, Valerie C.
Basso, Manuela
Ye, Yaozu
Sahawneh, John
Franco, Maria Clara
Beckman, Joseph S.
Estévez, Alvaro G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

BACKGROUND: Cell migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, and extracellular matrix remodeling are key events in wound healing. Natural products, including fatty acids (FAs), can accelerate wound healing by modulating the aforementioned events. AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the effect of lucuma (Pouteria lucuma O Kezte) nut oil (LNO) on fibroblasts migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and fungal growth, and wound healing. Methods  GC-MS analysis of FAs methyl esters (FAMES) was used for chemical characterization of LNO.

Author(s): 
Rojo, Leonel E.
Villano, Caren M.
Joseph, Gili
Schmidt, Barbara
Shulaev, Vladimir
Shuman, Joel L.
Lila, Mary Ann
Raskin, Ilya
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been shown to be effective in ameliorating chronic and acute inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether ABA's anti-inflammatory efficacy in the gut is dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in T cells. PPARγ-expressing and T cell-specific PPARγ null mice were fed diets with or without ABA (100 mg/kg) for 35 days prior to challenge with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate. The severity of clinical disease was assessed daily, and mice were euthanized on Day 7 of the dextran sodium sulfate challenge.

Author(s): 
Guri, Amir J.
Evans, Nicholas P.
Hontecillas, Raquel
Bassaganya-Riera, Josep
Publication Title: 
Developmental Cell

Abnormalities in insulin/IGF-1 signaling are associated with infertility, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we use liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to show that the C. elegans insulin/FOXO pathway regulates the metabolism of locally acting lipid hormones called prostaglandins. C. elegans prostaglandins are synthesized without prostaglandin G/H synthase homologs, the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Author(s): 
Edmonds, Johnathan W.
Prasain, Jeevan K.
Dorand, Dixon
Yang, Youfeng
Hoang, Hieu D.
Vibbert, Jack
Kubagawa, Homare M.
Miller, Michael A.
Publication Title: 
The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

The rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of reliable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies. Awareness of socio-cultural differences is important because collaborative efforts to deal with food hazards presuppose some understanding of where, how and why the viewpoints of various stakeholders may differ.

Author(s): 
Finucane, Melissa L.
Publication Title: 
Transgenic Research

While there are many reports in the literature describing the attributes of specific applications of transgenic animals for agriculture, there are relatively few studies focusing on the fitness of the transgenic animals themselves. This work was designed to gather information on genetically modified food animals to determine if the presence of a transgene can impact general animal production traits.

Author(s): 
Jackson, Kathryn A.
Berg, Jolene M.
Murray, James D.
Maga, Elizabeth A.
Publication Title: 
Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM

Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food.

Author(s): 
Kramkowska, Marta
Grzelak, Teresa
Czyżewska, Krystyna
Publication Title: 
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

A reduced growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis is associated with an extension of lifespan in laboratory rodents. Several phenotypes of such animal models resemble those induced by caloric restriction (CR). Using a transgenic male Wistar rat model whose GH-IGF-1 axis was moderately suppressed by overexpression of the antisense GH transgene (tg), we elucidated a relationship between the effects of a reduced GH-IGF-1 axis and CR for some biomarkers of aging, lifespan, and pathologies.

Author(s): 
Shimokawa, Isao
Higami, Yoshikazu
Tsuchiya, Tomoshi
Otani, Hiroshi
Komatsu, Toshimitsu
Chiba, Takuya
Yamaza, Haruyoshi
Publication Title: 
Autophagy

Autophagy is a catabolic process in which long-lived proteins and organelles are degraded for recycling in the cytoplasm. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans autophagy is associated with formation of the dauer larva, an alternative developmental stage that worms can enter under poor growth conditions. We have shown that C. elegans mutants that experience caloric restriction because they are feeding-defective also exhibit elevated autophagy and decreased levels of fat deposits, as well as smaller cells and, consequently, a smaller body size.

Author(s): 
Mörck, Catarina
Pilon, Marc
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology

Caenorhabditis elegans defecation is a rhythmic behavior, composed of three sequential muscle contractions, with a 50-s periodicity. The motor program is driven by oscillatory calcium signaling in the intestine. Proton fluxes, which require sodium-proton exchangers at the apical and basolateral intestinal membranes, parallel the intestinal calcium flux. These proton shifts are critical for defecation-associated muscle contraction, nutrient uptake, and longevity. How sodium-proton exchangers are activated in time with intestinal calcium oscillation is not known.

Author(s): 
Wagner, Jamie
Allman, Erik
Taylor, Ashley
Ulmschneider, Kiri
Kovanda, Timothy
Ulmschneider, Bryne
Nehrke, Keith
Peters, Maureen A.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Animals, Genetically Modified