Ageing in immune reactivity is described at the level of lymphoid cells, at that of lymphoid organs and organ function, and at that of regulation of cell and organ function. Apart from shifts in numbers of lymphoid cell subpopulations, the decrease in communication capacity between lymphoid cell populations and in binding of invaders (like bacteria) is an important aspect of ageing. These aspects may contribute to the decreased immune reactivity to invaders and the enhanced incidence of immune reactions to self-components (autoimmune reactivity).
Neutrophils are major cells participants in innate host responses. They are short-lived leukocytes, although microbial products activate intracellular signaling cascades that prolong their survival by inhibiting constitutive apoptosis. To gain insight into the phylogeny of this important cell type, we examined the ability of toll-like receptor agonists to extend the lifespan of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) acidophilic granulocytes, which are the functional equivalent of mammalian neutrophils.
Antibodies continuously secreted by plasma cells play a central role in humoral immune protection of the organism. These plasma cells are generated during the germinal center reaction, and it is likely that they here acquire the potential to develop into long-lived cells. To achieve longevity, these cells require factors provided by the microenvironment. Indeed, only a few of the plasmablasts arising during an immune response will differentiate into mature plasma cells, which may survive for decades in specialized survival niches in the bone marrow.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
This paper presents a review of recent work on the role that two epigenetic-related systems may play in information processing mechanisms in the brain. The first consists of exosomes that transport epigenetic-related molecules between neurons. The second consists of homeoproteins like Otx2 that carry information from sense organs to primary sensory cortex. There is developing evidence that presynaptic neurons may be able to modulate the fine microanatomical structure in the postsynaptic neuron.
Cuadernos De Bioetica: Revista Oficial De La Asociacion Espanola De Bioetica Y Etica Medica
Molecular interactions and cellular exchanges between mother and foetus or embryo in pregnancy generate an intimate symbiosis of two different lives. Interpersonal communication is an established requirement in the life of each man to reach personal plenitude. Initially on a biological basis, each person is open to others and his surroundings. While the body of the child is developing in the womb of the mother, the mother prepares the "last finish", which will allow him to assimilate and adapt to his peculiar world.
The authors of models concerning cooperation found an interesting application point in mutualism and symbiosis. Phenomena which are to be found in symbiosis are integrated by the various models in relation to the 'Prisoner's Dilemma': 'cost-benefit' ratio components, signals, neighbourhood interaction or reciprocity. Reciprocal altruism is found in symbiosis, but others strategies seem more to reflect human societies, where choice is unrestricted. It is very difficult to give a value to cost and benefit equilibriums.
Social interactions, including cooperation and altruism, are characteristic of numerous species, but many aspects of the evolution, ecology and genetics of social behavior remain unclear. The microbial soil amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a model system for the study of social evolution and provides insights into the nature of social cooperation and its genetic basis.
Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry / Official Journal of the Nitric Oxide Society
Artemisinin is the active principle of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. In addition to its anti-malarial activity, artemisinin and its derivatives have been shown to exert profound anti-cancer activity. The endoperoxide moiety in the chemical structure of artemisinin is thought to be responsible for the bioactivity. Here, we analyzed the cytotoxicity and the ability of artemisinin, five of its derivatives, and two other endoperoxides to inhibit generation of nitric oxide (NO).
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
The antiatherogenic effects of soy isoflavone consumption have been demonstrated in a variety of studies. However, the mechanisms involved remain poorly defined. Adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells is a key step within the inflammatory cascade that leads to atherogenesis. Many factors, including the physical forces associated with blood flow, regulate this process.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are found in approximately 20% of patients with familial ALS. Mutant SOD1 causes motor neuron death through an acquired toxic property. Although the molecular mechanism underlying this toxic gain-of-function remains unknown, evidence support the role of mutant SOD1 expression in nonneuronal cells in shaping motor neuron degeneration.