South African Medical Journal = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Of all the theories purporting to uncover the roots of childhood behaviour and its extension into adult behaviour, the most cogent relates to the physical and psychological bonds of attachment between infant and mother. It is helpful to divide the human lifespan into three periods, each of which has alternating phases of attachment and detachment.
BACKGROUND: Among patients with well differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma who generally have an excellent prognosis and a near-normal lifespan, there exist subsets of patients who have significant risk for morbidity and mortality from this disease. It is important to define the patterns of disease progression and the clinical outcome of such patients to develop effective surveillance and treatment strategies.
Definitions of psychological abuse are reviewed and a new definition proposed, operationalized as an extension of an existing measure of childhood, the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA). This semistructured, investigator-based interview is designed for use with adults to collect retrospective accounts of childhood adverse experience. The CECA extension identifies nine subtypes of psychological abuse, with a single global severity rating.
A new retrospective interview assessment of childhood psychological abuse, an extension to the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) instrument, is described in a companion article (Moran, Bifulco, Ball, Jacobs, & Benaim, 2002). The purpose of the present article is to examine the relationship of childhood psychological abuse to other adverse childhood experiences and to major depression and suicidal behavior in adult life. Childhood experience and lifetime disorder were assessed retrospectively in a high-risk, community series of London women (n = 204).
BACKGROUND: Scant research has examined the effect of neuropsychological (NP) functioning on treatment outcome in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study sought to address this gap in existing research. METHODS: A total of 63 youths were included in this study and asked to complete the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and specific subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III).
BACKGROUND: Orthopaedic oncologists often must address leg-length discrepancy after resection of tumors in growing patients with osteosarcoma. There are various alternatives to address this problem. We describe a three-stage procedure: (1) temporary arthrodesis, (2) lengthening by Ilizarov apparatus, and (3) tumor prosthesis.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of autophagy increases the lifespan of organisms from yeast to flies. In contrast to the lifespan extension effect in lower organisms, it has been reported that overexpression of unc-51-like kinase 3 (ULK3), the mammalian homolog of autophagy-specific gene 1 (ATG1), induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts. Therefore, we assessed whether the activation of autophagy would genuinely induce premature senescence in human cells.
OBJECTIVE: Fluoride was first added to the Australian water supply in 1953, and by 2003, 69% of Australia's population was receiving the minimum recommended dose. Extending coverage of fluoridation to all remaining communities of at least 1000 people is a key strategy of Australia's National Oral Health Plan 2004-2013. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this strategy from an Australian health sector perspective. METHODS: Health gains from the prevention of caries in the Australian population are modelled over the average 15-year lifespan of a treatment plant.
Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such learning across the lifespan, between 4 and 85 years of age with an implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, and we found that the difference in implicitly learning high- vs.
A cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) genotype (V/V homozygosity for I405V, NCBI dbSNP rs5882) has been associated with preservation of cognitive function in old age, in addition to its associations with exceptional longevity and cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypotheses that this polymorphism was associated with either level of cognitive function or lifetime cognitive change in 525 participants who took part in the Scottish Mental Survey of 1932. Participants took the same well-validated mental ability test at ages 11 and 79.