BACKGROUND: Many animal experimental studies have been performed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sex differences are a major issue in all diseases including PD. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews investigating sex differences on the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for animal PD models. The current study aimed to summarize and analyze past studies in order to evaluate these possible differences.
Traditional herbal medicines have been safely used for the treatment of various human diseases since ancient China. We selected 10 herbal extracts with therapeutic antiherpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity. Among these, Geum japonicum Thunb., Rhus javanica L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry, or Terminalia chebula Retzus showed a stronger anti-HSV-1 activity in combination with acyclovir than the other herbal extracts in vitro.
Hot water extracts of four traditional herbs, Geum japonicum, Syzygium aromaticum, Terminalia chebula and Rhus javanica, which have been shown to have anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity in vivo, were examined for anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) activity in vitro and in vivo in this study. They inhibited replication of human CMV and murine CMV (MCMV) in vitro. These anti-CMV activities in vivo were examined in an MCMV infection model using immunosuppressed mice.
Gallic acid (GA) and chebulagic acid (CA) were isolated from the extract of a herbal medicine, kashi (myrobalans: the fruit of Terminalia chebula) as active principles that blocked the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated cytotoxicity. GA and CA inhibited the killing activity of CD8+ CTL clone at IC50 values of 30 microM and 50 microM, respectively. Granule exocytosis in response to anti-CD3 stimulation was also blocked by GA and CA at the equivalent concentrations.
Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Medicinal herbs, Geum japonicum, Syzygium aromaticum, Terminalia chebula, and Rhus javanica, with anti-herpes simplex virus therapeutic activity, inhibited replication of human cytomegalovirus(CMV) and murine CMV(MCMV) in vitro. These anti-CMV activities were examined in an MCMV infection model using immunosuppressed mice. Geum japonicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Terminalia chebula significantly suppressed MCMV yields in lungs of treated mice compared with water treatment.
A multicomponent herbal formula Ledretan-96 was tested on an epithelial tissue culture cell line (MDCK) for its protective activity against cytopathic effects caused by influenza A virus. The whole formula and each of its 23 individual components were tested in the same system. The results indicated that the formula, when prepared according to established procedure, in the form of decoction, is active in protecting epithelial cells against damage caused by influenza A virus used at different dosages.
Padma 28 is a mixture of herbs used in traditional Tibetan medicine with anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effects of Padma 28 on nitric oxide (NO) production by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide stimulated mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7). Padma 28 (0-900 microg/mL) induced a concentration dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. iNOS protein expression showed a concentration dependent reduction as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Padma 28.
We investigated the effects of the water soluble fraction of Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae) (WFTC) on systemic and local anaphylaxis. WFTC administered 1h before compound 48/80 injection inhibited compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock 100% with doses of 0.01-1.0 g/kg. When WFTC was administered 5 or 10 min after compound 48/80 injection, the mortality also decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was inhibited by 63.5+/-7.8% by oral administration of WFTC (1.0 g/kg).
A 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit, was studied for its effects on growth in several malignant cell lines including a human (MCF-7) and mouse (S115) breast cancer cell line, a human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-1), a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) and a non-tumorigenic, immortalized human prostate cell line (PNT1A) using assays for proliferation ([(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and coulter counting), cell viability (ATP determination) and cell death (flow cytometry and Hoechst DNA staining).
Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men, women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy, watery and swollen eyes.