Nucleic Acid Hybridization

Publication Title: 
Experimental Cell Research

Lymphocytes have a finite and predictable proliferative life span in culture similar to that observed in fibroblasts. In general, the senescence of human fibroblasts is inevitable and irreversible, but their proliferative life span can be extended by certain DNA tumor virus oncogenes, such as the large T antigen of the SV40 virus. Here, we show that human T lymphocytes (HTL) can be stably transfected with SV40 large T and that expression of T antigen extended the life span of T cell cultures.

Author(s): 
Ryan, Q. C.
Goonewardene, I. M.
Murasko, D. M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Protozoology

We have analyzed the macronuclear DNA of Paramecium tetraurelia using orthogonal-field-alternation gel electrophoresis. The mean size of the linear macronuclear DNA molecules is approximately 450 kb. Less than 6% of the macronuclear DNA is larger than 800 kb. Using pulse times of 20, 40, 60 and 90 s we show that the macronuclear fragment containing the A type variable surface antigen gene migrates reproducibly as a 320-kb linear DNA. Over the same pulse times we describe the unusual migration of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) of P. tetraurelia.

Author(s): 
Phan, H. L.
Forney, J.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Author(s): 
Blackburn, E. H.
Budarf, M. L.
Challoner, P. B.
Cherry, J. M.
Howard, E. A.
Katzen, A. L.
Pan, W. C.
Ryan, T.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Cell Biology

The ribosomal RNA genes of the Tetrahymena macronucleus exist as extrachromosomal, linear molecules. The termini of these molecules have been shown to contain the tandemly repeated hexanucleotide (C-C-C-C-A-A)n. In this study the same or related sequences were found in other locations of the genome. Using the depurination method, we showed that macronuclear DNA contained this sequence even after rDNA had been removed. The sequence was found mainly in the repetitive fraction of the DNA.

Author(s): 
Yao, M. C.
Blackburn, E.
Gall, J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Cell Biology

The ribosomal RNA genes of the Tetrahymena macronucleus exist as extrachromosomal, linear molecules. The termini of these molecules have been shown to contain the tandemly repeated hexanucleotide (C-C-C-C-A-A)n. In this study the same or related sequences were found in other locations of the genome. Using the depurination method, we showed that macronuclear DNA contained this sequence even after rDNA had been removed. The sequence was found mainly in the repetitive fraction of the DNA.

Author(s): 
Yao, M. C.
Blackburn, E.
Gall, J.
Publication Title: 
Cell

We have constructed a linear yeast plasmid by joining fragments from the termini of Tetrahymena ribosomal DNA to a yeast vector. Structural features of the terminus region of the Tetrahymena rDNA plasmid maintained in the yeast linear plasmid include a set of specifically placed single-strand interruptions within the cluster of hexanucleotide (C4A2) repeat units. An artificially constructed hairpin terminus was unable to stabilize a linear plasmid in yeast.

Author(s): 
Szostak, J. W.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Nucleic Acids Research

To investigate the developmentally programmed telomere addition that accompanies chromosome fragmentation during macronuclear differentiation in Tetrahymena thermophila, five representative telomeric regions from the macronucleus were cloned and characterized in detail. The sequences adjacent to the telomeric (C4A2:T2G4) repeats on these five macronuclear ends had no significant sequence homology or shared secondary structure.

Author(s): 
Spangler, E. A.
Ryan, T.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Genes & Development

The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila contains two nuclei that differ dramatically in function, chromosome size and number, chromatin structure, and mode of division. It is possible that the telomeres of the two nuclei have different functions. Although macronuclear telomeric DNA has been well characterized and consists of tandem G4T2/C4A2 repeats that are synthesized by the enzyme telomerase, micronuclear telomeres have not been isolated previously.

Author(s): 
Kirk, K. E.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Molecular and Cellular Biology

We analyzed the extent, reproducibility, and developmental control of genomic rearrangements in the somatic macronucleus of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. To exclude differences caused by genetic polymorphisms, we constructed whole-genome homozygotes, and we compared the homozygous progeny derived from single macronuclear differentiation events. This strategy enabled us to identify a novel form of variable rearrangement and to confirm previous findings that rearranged sequences occur at a high frequency in the Tetrahymena genome.

Author(s): 
Howard, E. A.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

We transformed the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila by microinjection of circular plasmids containing the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). In the somatic macronucleus of Tetrahymena, the rDNA is in the form of linear palindromic molecules. The rDNA molecules from the C3 strain have a replication advantage over rDNA from both B strain and the C3 rDNA mutant rmm1. We constructed two circular plasmids carrying replication origin sequences from C3 rDNA and a point mutation (Pmr) in the 17S rRNA gene that confers resistance to the antibiotic paromomycin.

Author(s): 
Yu, G. L.
Hasson, M.
Blackburn, E. H.

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