Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
Methaqualone pretreatment for 3 or 6 days caused an induction of hepatic enzymes in the young male rat as measured by a reduction in hexobarbital-hypnosis. However, methaqualone pretreatment had no effect on the hexobarbital-hypnotic response in older male rats. Phenobarbital was a more potent enzyme inducer than methaqualone, and caused induction of liver enzymes in both age groups.
The effects of endosulfan on the weights of the liver, adrenal and ovary, on pentobarbital blood and brain levels and on sleeping time (ST) have been investigated in female rats after daily oral doses of 0, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg for a period of 7 or 15 days. No significant change in body weight was observed. With higher doses (2.5--5.0 mg/kg) the liver weight was significantly increased, but ovary and adrenal weights did not increase. Endosulfan treatment shortened sleeping time, while induction time was significantly increased.
In a previous study, we found that orally administered Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) induced hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) in rats, especially the CYP2B type. This fact suggested that GBE influenced the availability and safety of drugs that were metabolized via CYP2B type enzymes. To confirm this possibility, in this study we examined the effect of feeding a 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% GBE diet for 2 weeks on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological action of phenobarbital, which is known to be metabolized by CYP2B in Wistar rats. The feeding of GBE markedly shortened the sleeping time in rats.
An efflux pump inhibitor, SK-20 (5-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyle)-4 ethyl-2E,4E-pentadienoic acid piperidide), was assessed for its toxicity at three different pharmacological profiles: acute, sub-acute and general pharmacology with pharmacokinetics. In acute study, the SK-20 was found safe up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg (b.wt.); and at sub-acute, dosages of 50 and 100 mg/kg (b.wt.) were found to be safe.
The constructal law accounts for the universal phenomenon of generation and evolution of design (configuration, shape, structure, pattern, rhythm). This phenomenon is observed across the board, in animate, inanimate and human systems. The constructal law states the time direction of the evolutionary design phenomenon. It defines the concept of design evolution in physics. Along with the first and second law, the constructal law elevates thermodynamics to a science of systems with configuration.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
Rasayanas are a group of herbal drug preparations widely used in Ayurveda to improve the general health of the body. In mice, Rasayanas are potent myeloprotective agents against chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Rasayanas are also effective myeloprotectors in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In this study, we provide further evidence to support the chemoprotective and radioprotective efficacy of four Rasayanas in mice. Rasayanas were found to reduce the loss of body weight and organ weight induced by cyclophosphamide and radiation significantly.
The aim of the present investigation deals with the hematology and hepatorenal function of Caesalpinia bonducella Flem. and Bauhinia racemosa Lam. belonging to the Family: Caesalpiniaceae, and used in the traditional system of medicine. The tribal people of Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, use the leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella and the stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa in combination with some other herbs for the treatment of various tumors, liver disorders, inflammation and some other diseases. In ancient Ayurveda medicine these plants were mentioned to possess antitumor agents.
Bioactivity-guided purification of n-BuOH soluble fraction from the ethanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoides resulted in the isolation of two new compounds, 2,3,4-trihydroxy-3-methylbutyl 3-[3-hydroxy-4-(2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutoxy)-phenyl]-2-propenoate (1) and 1,3-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid methyl ester (2) along with six known compounds, caffeic acid (3), 6-methoxy-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside coumarin (4), 2-C-methyl erythritol (5), kaempferol-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (7) and quecetine-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8).
Kothala himbutu is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the safety of an aqueous extract of Kothala himbutu stem (KTE) in normal mice. The mice were divided into two groups: one was administered KTE and the other distilled water for 3 weeks. During the test period, the groups showed no significant differences in body weight gain or plasma parameters, such as fasting blood glucose level, oral glucose tolerance test, or aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) activity.