Sex Characteristics

Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Molecular advances of the past decade have led to the discovery of a myriad of 'aging genes' (methuselah, Indy, InR, Chico, superoxide dismutase) that extend Drosophila lifespan by up to 85%. Despite this life extension, these mutants are no longer lived than at least some recently wild-caught strains. Typically, long-lived mutants are identified in relatively short-lived genetic backgrounds, and their effects are rarely tested in genetic backgrounds other than the one in which they were isolated or derived.

Author(s): 
Spencer, Christine C.
Howell, Christine E.
Wright, Amber R.
Promislow, Daniel E. L.
Publication Title: 
Folia Morphologica

A comparison of the data published in anatomy textbooks and anthropological tables does not reveal any change in basic heart dimensions during the period since the beginning of the 20th century to nowadays. However, normal values of many other parameters have changed up to 30% over the same period. These changes may be caused by the acceleration phenomenon or the extension of average lifespan.

Author(s): 
Skwarek, M.
Grzybiak, M.
Kosi?ski, A.
Hreczecha, J.
Publication Title: 
Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Sex differences in lifespan exist world-wide, with women outliving men by more than a decade in some countries. The gender gap is not a uniquely human phenomenon; most sexually reproducing species examined show sex differences in patterns of ageing, yet a comprehensive explanation does not exist. Here, we discuss how ageing responds to natural selection on traits that arise as a consequence of sexuality.

Author(s): 
Regan, Jennifer C.
Partridge, Linda
Publication Title: 
Journal of molecular neuroscience: MN

How we age as individuals is no doubt a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Studies of certain populations with optimal environments and health-related behaviors, as well as twin studies, suggest that the average set of genetic variations should facilitate the average person's ability to live to around age 85. Average life expectancies are lower than this because we generally fight survival advantage with bad health habits that can lead to premature aging, chronic illness, and death at a significantly younger age.

Author(s): 
Perls, Thomas
Kunkel, Louis M.
Puca, Annibale A.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Starting from young to very old subjects, aging is associated with a progressive remodeling. Such an age-dependent remodeling process mainly affects anthropometrics, endocrine and thus, also metabolic factors. Interestingly, it occurs in some individuals successfully, while in others unsuccessfully. Centenarians in good health conditions are a very selected group of subjects representing an exceptional condition. Why the centenarians reach the extreme human life span is still unknown.

Author(s): 
Barbieri, M.
Gambardella, A.
Paolisso, G.
Varricchio, M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

CONTEXT: Few studies have examined whether the inflammatory markers IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with exceptional longevity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the association of serum CRP and IL-6 with adult lifespan. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a prospective, population-based study of 610 men and 743 postmenopausal women, mean age 73 yr, who had serum IL-6 and CRP measurements at baseline (1984-1987) and who were followed for mortality for up to 23 yr (through 2008).

Author(s): 
Wassel, Christina L.
Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth
Laughlin, Gail A.
Publication Title: 
BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

Mitochondrial function is achieved through the cooperative interaction of two genomes: one nuclear (nuDNA) and the other mitochondrial (mtDNA). The unusual transmission of mtDNA, predominantly maternal without recombination is predicted to affect the fitness of male offspring. Recent research suggests the strong sexual dimorphism in aging is one such fitness consequence. The uniparental inheritance of mtDNA results in a selection asymmetry; mutations that affect only males will not respond to natural selection, imposing a male-specific mitochondrial mutation load.

Author(s): 
Wolff, Jonci N.
Gemmell, Neil J.
Publication Title: 
Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Sex differences in lifespan exist world-wide, with women outliving men by more than a decade in some countries. The gender gap is not a uniquely human phenomenon; most sexually reproducing species examined show sex differences in patterns of ageing, yet a comprehensive explanation does not exist. Here, we discuss how ageing responds to natural selection on traits that arise as a consequence of sexuality.

Author(s): 
Regan, Jennifer C.
Partridge, Linda
Publication Title: 
Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society

(A) There are data showing beyond question a gender gap, with women living longer than men, especially in economically developed societies. There is greater male vulnerability to the major causes of human death. (B) In lower animals there are data suggesting a female survival advantage to adult life in many species, but the observations do not consider longevity or survival to an advanced age.

Author(s): 
Smith, D. W.
Publication Title: 
Mutation Research

Free radical reactions are ubiquitous in living things. Studies on the origin and evolution of life provide a reasonable explanation for the prominent presence of this unruly class of chemical reactions. These reactions have been implicated in aging. This phenomenon is the accumulation of changes responsible for the sequential alterations that accompany advancing age and the associated progressive increases in the chance of disease and death. Aging changes are attributed to the environment and disease, and to an inborn process, the aging process.

Author(s): 
Harman, D.

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