Elimination of Paratylenchus neoamblvcephalus from soil by fumigation with 1,2-dibromoethane stimulated the growth of Myrobalan seedlings grown in it. Addition of a suspension of P. neoamblycephalus to Myrobalan seedlings inhibited their growth as compared to noninoculated controls. When nematodes were removed from the suspension by settling, and the supernatant liquid was used as inoculum, no stunting occurred. Roots of Myrobalan seedlings inoculated with surface-sterilized P. neoamblycephalus were smaller, darker, and had fewer feeder roots than those of noninoculated controls.
Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrates for production of tannase and gallic acid was carried out using two fungal cultures, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). The tannin rich substrates included powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and Caesalpinia digyna pod cover powder. The different environmental parameters for the maximum production of tannase and gallic acid were optimized through media engineering.
Resistant rootstocks offer an alternative to pesticides for the control of soil pests. In Prunus spp., resistance loci to root-knot nematodes (RKN) have been mapped and a transformation method is needed to validate candidate genes. Our efforts have focused on the generation of transformed hairy-roots and composite plants appropriate for nematode infection assays. An efficient and reliable method using the A4R strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the transformation of Prunus roots with an Egfp reporter gene is given.
Normal human diploid cells, TIG-1, ceased to proliferate at about the 62 population doubling level (PDL). Transformed clones isolated from TIG-1 cells infected with wtSV40 and those with tsA900 SV40 cultured at 34 degrees C were subcultured up to about 80 PDL. When the culture temperature of tsA SV40-transformed cells was shifted from 34 to 39.5 degrees C at 51 PDL, the growth curve of these transformed cells changed to that of normal young cells.
Hormesis, the beneficial effect of a mild stress, has been proposed as a means to prolong the period of healthy ageing as it can increase the average lifespan of a cohort. However, if we want to use hormesis therapeutically it is important that the treatment is beneficial on the individual level and not just on average at the population level. Long lived lines have been shown not to benefit from a, in other lines, hormesis inducing heat treatment in Drosophila melanogaster, D. buzzatii and mice.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
To explore factors associated with longevity, we studied geographic distribution of centenarians in Japan, based on 1990 the population census. We calculated the proportion of centenarians from ratio of number of centenarian to that of population aged 65 years or older. Centenarians in Japan consisted of number 4,152 persons. By prefecture, Tokyo had the most centenarians (383), followed by Okinawa (193) and Fukuoka (151) prefectures. Fukui had the least (24), followed by Akita (26) and Ishikawa (29) prefectures.
The clk-1 gene of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans encodes an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that is necessary for ubiquinone biosynthesis. Loss-of-function mutations in clk-1, as well as in its mouse orthologue mclk1, increase lifespan in both organisms. In nematodes, clk-1 extends lifespan by a mechanism that is distinct from the insulin signaling-like pathway but might have similarities to calorie restriction. The evolutionary conservation of the effect of clk-1/mclk1 on lifespan suggests that the gene affects a fundamental mechanism of aging.