We evaluated predictions derived from the ultradian theory of hypnosis regarding the effects of temperature, light, trance length, and time of day on reported trance depth in 95 college undergraduates. Temperature and light showed no relation to trance depth. However, as predicted by ultradian theory, subjects who were kept in trance for 15 minutes reported greater trance depth than those who experienced a 5-minute trance.
Implementing a recall paradigm without hypnosis, we use functional MRI (fMRI) to explore and compare nociceptive and centrally-driven pain experiences. We posit that a trace of a recent nociceptive event can be used to create sensory-re-experiencing of pain that can be qualified in terms of intensity and vividness. Fifteen healthy volunteers received three levels of thermal stimuli (warm, low pain and high pain) and subsequently were asked to recall and then rate this experience.
AIMS: To determine the pharmacokinetics of artemether (ARM) and its principal active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Six healthy male Malaysian subjects were given a single oral dose of 200 mg artemether. Blood samples were collected to 72 h. Plasma concentrations of the two compounds were measured simultaneously by reversed-phase h.p.l.c. with electro-chemical detection in the reductive mode. RESULTS: Mean (+/- s.d.) maximum concentrations of ARM, 310 +/- 153 micrograms l-1, were reached 1.88 +/- 0.21 h after drug intake.
The purpose of the present study was to characterize the partitioning of artemisinin into both uninfected and Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (RBCs). The partitioning of [(14)C](+)-artemisinin into RBCs was studied at four different hematocrit levels and eight time periods. At the optimum time of 2 h, the partitioning process was investigated with eight different drug concentrations ranging from 0.88 to 3.52 microM at 37 and 4 degrees C. The effect of the presence of unlabeled artemisinin on the partitioning of the same concentration of [(14)C]artemisinin was studied.
Highland areas where malaria transmission is unstable are targets for malaria elimination because transmission decreases to low levels during the dry season. In highland areas of Kipsamoite and Kapsisiywa, Kenya (population approximately 7,400 persons), annual household indoor residual spraying with a synthetic pyrethroid was performed starting in 2005, and artemether/lumefantrine was implemented as first-line malaria treatment in October 2006. During April 2007-March 2008, no microscopy-confirmed cases of malaria occurred at the sites.
A number of flavonoids including casticin and artemetin from Artemisia annua have shown synergism with artemisinin against Plasmodium falciparum, but it is unclear if the flavonoids are also extracted into a tea infusion of the plant. Using a tea infusion preparation protocol that was reported to be highly effective for artemisinin extraction, we measured casticin and artemetin extraction. There was only a 1.8 % recovery of casticin in the infusion while artemetin was undetectable. After 24 hr storage at room temperature, casticin yield declined by 40 %.
BACKGROUND: The Shoklo Malaria Research Unit has been working on the Thai-Myanmar border for 25 y providing early diagnosis and treatment (EDT) of malaria. Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum has declined, but resistance to artesunate has emerged. We expanded malaria activities through EDT and evaluated the impact over a 12-y period. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 1 October 1999 and 30 September 2011, the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit increased the number of cross-border (Myanmar side) health facilities from two to 11 and recorded the number of malaria consultations.
BACKGROUND: Numerous methods have been reported for the determination of artemether (ARM) and its metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in plasma. However, stability issues in patient plasma have not received enough attention. RESULTS: An LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of ARM and DHA in human plasma (K3EDTA) turned out to be problematic: ARM and DHA were degraded partially or completely in some patient plasma samples as indicated by the stable isotope-labeled internal standards.