Tumor-promoting phorbol esters, like growth factors, elicit pleiotropic responses involving biochemical pathways that lead to different biological responses. Genetic variant cell lines that are resistant to mitogenic, differentiation, or transformation responses to tumor promoters have been valuable tools for understanding the molecular bases of these responses.
To obtain the large amount of T cells required for adoptive immunotherapy in a clinical setting, T-cell lifespan extension by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) transduction is of particular interest. However, constitutive expression of hTERT is associated with malignant transformation and thus warrants a detailed evaluation of the safety of hTERT-transduced T cells before clinical application.
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a key cytokine for the generation and stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs), and it may also play a pivotal role in promoting the survival of DCs. In this study, the feasibility of creating a cancer vaccine using DCs adenovirally transduced with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene and the GM-CSF gene was examined. In addition, the effect of the co-transduction of GM-CSF gene on the lifespan of these genetically modified DCs was determined.
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is characterized by the triad of reticulate skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia. Epidermal atrophy, hair growth defects, bone marrow failure and increased risk of cancer are also common in DC patients. DC is caused by mutations in genes encoding for telomerase complex factors. Although there is an association of epidermal abnormalities with DC, epidermal cells from DC donors have not been previously characterized.
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Tissue engineering involves the use of synthetic or natural materials as a scaffold to support the growth of replacement tissue or organs. The use of autologous cells to populate the scaffold avoids problems associated with rejection; however, a major limitation of this approach is the finite lifespan of primary cells in culture. This finite lifespan is due to the shortening of telomeres, short repetitive sequences of DNA located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.
Using a modified single telomere length analysis protocol (STELA) to clone and examine the sequence composition of individual human XpYp telomeres, we discovered a distinct class of extremely short telomeres in human cancer cells with active telomerase. We name them "t-stumps," to distinguish them from the well-regulated longer bulk telomeres. T-stumps contained arrangements of telomeric repeat variants and a minimal run of seven canonical telomeric TTAGGG repeats, but all could bind at least one TRF1 or TRF2 in vitro.
Retroviral vectors are versatile gene transfer vehicles widely used in basic research and gene therapy. Mutation of retroviral integrase converts these vectors into transient, integration-deficient gene delivery vehicles associated with a high degree of biosafety. We explored the option to use integration-deficient retroviral vectors to achieve transient ectopic expression of transcription factors, which is considered an important tool for induced cell fate conversion.
OBJECTIVES: Targeting the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostanoid pathway is considered an intriguing approach for therapy and prevention of several cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the protumorigenic properties of COX-2 in pancreatic cancer (PaCa) are still poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the phenotype of COX-2 expressing syngeneic PaCa cells. METHODS: Cyclooxygenase-2-negative MIA PaCa-2 cells were stably transduced with COX-2 or control viruses (MP2 and MP2).
OBJECTIVES: The flavonoid quercetin holds promise as an antitumor agent in several preclinical animal models. However, the efficacy of oral administration of quercetin in a pancreatic cancer mouse model is unknown. METHODS: The antiproliferative effects of quercetin alone or in combination with gemcitabine were tested in 2 human pancreatic cancer cell lines using cell count and MTT assays. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Tumor growth in vivo was investigated in an orthotopic pancreatic cancer animal model using bioluminescence. Quercetin was administered orally in the diet.
Prenatal transplantation of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might benefit prevention or treatment of early-onset genetic disorders due to the cells' intrinsic regenerative potential plus the acquired advantage from therapeutic transgene expression. However, a thorough assessment of the safety, accessibility, and behavior of these MSCs in the fetal environment using appropriate animal models is required before we can advance toward a clinical application.