In a previous paper, we reported that PZ-177 had potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. In the present work, acute toxicity and action of PZ-177 on the central nervous system were tested in comparison with PZ-222, one of metabolites of PZ-177, and mepirizole. Acute toxicity of PZ-177 was slightly less than that of aminopyrine and the same as that of mepirizole in mice and rats. PZ-177 produced from sedation to loss of righting reflex with the increase of dose.
Emergency ward physicians are presented daily with patients in pain. Provisions of safe, quick pain control remains one of their major duties. Hypnosis can be used as an effective adjunct or substitute for analgesic medications when these drugs prove to be ineffective or contraindicated. Four such illustrative cases of attempted pain control are presented. The psychological foundations of pain and its assessment are discussed. The emergency ward physician can obtain facility in hypnotic techniques with only modest training.
30 patients with severe refractory irritable-bowel syndrome were randomly allocated to treatment with either hypnotherapy or psychotherapy and placebo. The psychotherapy patients showed a small but significant improvement in abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and general well-being but not in bowel habit. The hypnotherapy patients showed a dramatic improvement in all features, the difference between the two groups being highly significant. In the hypnotherapy group no relapses were recorded during the 3-month follow-up period, and no substitution symptoms were observed.
Hypnotherapy has increasingly been included in the management of burn patients, particularly in the area of acute pain. To better understand such issues as (1) overall efficacy of hypnotherapy to alleviate acute burn pain, (2) instances in which hypnotherapy is contraindicated, (3) interaction of hypnotherapy with medication, (4) standard induction techniques to use with various age groups, (5) role of nursing and other staff in facilitating hypnotic effects, and (6) future methodological directions, we examined the clinical and methodological merits of recent studies of hypnoanalgesia.
The current case study illustrates the innovative potential of combined medical and psychological treatment of postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting for cancer patients. A 58-yr-old male patient diagnosed with leukemia and on a weekly cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) treatment protocol, experienced violent vomiting episodes approximately 3 hr. after each injection. Emesis was so severe that the patient considered terminating treatment.
In this paper, non-pharmacological aspects of acute pain management were explored. Much of the research to date with regard to pain management, has been done, addressing the needs of chronic rather than acute pain. It is thought that misconceptions are still held by some health care professionals regarding the adequacy of pharmacology to deal totally with the problems of acute pain management, and it is of more importance to concentrate on issues associated with chronic pain. This is borne out by the relative attention paid to acute and chronic pain in the current body of research.