The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
The pharmacokinetics of sodium-gamma-hydroxybutyrate (NaGHB) have been examined as functions of dose and route of administration. The elimination of NaGHB appeared to be controlled by a capacity-limited process which can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.
Induction of hepatic propoxyphene N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase activities resulted following repeated oral administration of 25, 50 and 100 mg d-propoxyphene hydrochloride per kg daily in the mouse over a six-day period. A significant elevation in both enzyme activities was noted after a single dose of propoxyphene (100 mg/kg). A dose-related response characterized the observed induction of each microsomal enzyme activity.
The pharmacological actions of N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-8-pyrrolizidineacetamide hydrochloride hemihydrate (SUN 1165), a new antiarrhythmic agent, on the central nervous system were studied in various experimental animals as compared with those of disopyramide, mexiletine and lidocaine, and the following results were obtained. 1. Acute toxicity of SUN 1165 in mice was similar to that of mexiletine, and twice as potent as compared with that of disopyramide and lidocaine.
A pharmacodynamic interactional study with omeprazole was undertaken in rats. Omeprazole (7 mg/kg, orally once daily for 14 days) significantly prolonged pentobarbitone (30 mg/kg, ip) induced hypnosis while it had no effect on haloperidol (1 mg/kg, ip) induced catalepsy or morphine (5 mg/kg, ip) induced analgesia models in rats. The study highlighted the fact that dynamic interaction with omeprazole was selective.
Some patients are anxious about routine dental treatment; others, who may be able to cope with uncomplicated treatment, are worried by more unpleasant procedures such as minor oral surgery. Management approaches to anxiety vary according to its severity, the age of the patient, the degree of cooperation and the patient's medical history. Psychological approaches have been widely used and range from informal and common-sense methods to formal relaxation training and hypnosis. These techniques are safe, free from adverse effects and give the patient a sense of control.
In a previous study, we found that orally administered Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) induced hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) in rats, especially the CYP2B type. This fact suggested that GBE influenced the availability and safety of drugs that were metabolized via CYP2B type enzymes. To confirm this possibility, in this study we examined the effect of feeding a 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% GBE diet for 2 weeks on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological action of phenobarbital, which is known to be metabolized by CYP2B in Wistar rats. The feeding of GBE markedly shortened the sleeping time in rats.
In order to evaluate the effects produced by the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from Casimiroa edulis on the central nervous system, different behavioral tests and animal models of depression and anxiety were performed. The extract was administered intraperitoneally in male and female rats and tested on spontaneous motor activity, locomotor activity, exploration of an elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in the forced swimming test (FST).
The saline leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum was investigated on neuropharmacological activities to ascertain claims of local use. When tested in mice, it produced a dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis, reduction of exploratory activities in the head-dip and evasion tests. Moreover, a dose-dependent muscle in-coordination was observed in the inclined screen, traction and climbing tests. It delayed onset to convulsion in both strychnine- and picrotoxin-induced seizures in addition to minimal protection against picrotoxin seizures.
OBJECTIVE: To provide a review of the literature and make known expert opinion regarding the treatment of vulvodynia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experts reviewed the existing literature to provide new definitions for vulvar pain and to describe treatments for this condition. RESULTS: Vulvodynia has been redefined by the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease as vulvar discomfort in the absence of gross anatomic or neurologic findings. Classification is based further on whether the pain is generalized or localized and whether it is provoked, unprovoked, or both.
Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J.: 1995)
This article reviews the safety and efficacy of enteral sedation use by dentists to provide an evidence-based perspective on the current controversy associated with the use and training requirements for enteral sedation in dental outpatients. Despite the many benefits to patients and dental practitioners, the administration of anxiolytic agents by the oral, sublingual, or rectal route (collectively referred to as enteral sedation) is controversial and has engendered efforts to limit its use and increase training requirements to levels similar to those for parenteral sedation.