Mathematics

Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

INTRODUCTION: Within the developing theoretical context of quantum macroentanglement, a mathematical model of the Vital Force (Vf) has recently been formulated. It describes the Vf in terms of a hypothetical gyroscope with quantized angular momentum. This enables the Vf's state of health to be represented in terms of a "wave function" derived solely from secondary symptom observables produced in response to disease or homeopathic remedies.

Author(s): 
Milgrom, Lionel R.
Publication Title: 
Folia Biologica

An extension of the mathematical model of immunological tolerance including two categories of B and T helper cells, each having a different lifespan, is presented. The simulated recovery from tolerance is compared with experimental data on B and T helper cell tolerance to human gamma globulin (HGG) induced in adult mice. The performed simulation runs suggest the conclusion that in this case it seems impossible to incorporate a high ratio of both, long-lived B cells and/or short-lived T helper cells, if good agreement with the available experimental data should be preserved.

Author(s): 
Dolezal, J.
Hraba, T.
Publication Title: 
Folia Morphologica

A comparison of the data published in anatomy textbooks and anthropological tables does not reveal any change in basic heart dimensions during the period since the beginning of the 20th century to nowadays. However, normal values of many other parameters have changed up to 30% over the same period. These changes may be caused by the acceleration phenomenon or the extension of average lifespan.

Author(s): 
Skwarek, M.
Grzybiak, M.
Kosi?ski, A.
Hreczecha, J.
Publication Title: 
Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Author(s): 
Merry, B. J.
Phillips, J. G.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Author(s): 
Davidson, B. E.
Blackburn, E. H.
Dopheide, T. A.
Publication Title: 
Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

The present research examined the impact of everyday romantic goal strivings on women's attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). It was hypothesized that women may distance themselves from STEM when the goal to be romantically desirable is activated because pursuing intelligence goals in masculine domains (i.e., STEM) conflicts with pursuing romantic goals associated with traditional romantic scripts and gender norms.

Author(s): 
Park, Lora E.
Young, Ariana F.
Troisi, Jordan D.
Pinkus, Rebecca T.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

The evolution of altruistic and selfish behavior by kin selection has been analyzed previously by asking which types of behavior are favored by natural selection. A type of behavior is defined as a given cost/benefit ratio, c/b, in terms of Darwinian fitness. An alternative approach is to consider c/b itself as a quantitative character subject to natural selection and evolving toward an equilibrium. This approach allows consideration of a continuum of behavioral options as opposed to just two alternatives as in the previous work.

Author(s): 
Engels, W. R.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

A condition is derived for reciprocal altruism to evolve by kin or group selection. It is assumed that many additively acting genes of small effect and the environment determine the probability that an individual is a reciprocal altruist, as opposed to being unconditionally selfish. The particular form of reciprocal altruism considered is TIT FOR TAT, a strategy that involves being altruistic on the first encounter with another individual and doing whatever the other did on the previous encounter in subsequent encounters with the same individual.

Author(s): 
Aoki, K.
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

A two-locus genetic model is studied in which one locus controls the tendency of individuals to act altruistically toward siblings and the other locus controls the mating habits of females. It is demonstrated that genetic variation at the altruism locus is often sufficient to induce an increase in the frequency of genes that cause females to produce all of their offspring with a single mate. This occurs because of nonrandom associations that develop between genes that cause altruism and those that affect female mating behavior.

Author(s): 
Peck, J. R.
Feldman, M. W.
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

The evolution of cooperation among nonrelated individuals is one of the fundamental problems in biology and social sciences. Reciprocal altruism fails to provide a solution if interactions are not repeated often enough or groups are too large. Punishment and reward can be very effective but require that defectors can be traced and identified. Here we present a simple but effective mechanism operating under full anonymity. Optional participation can foil exploiters and overcome the social dilemma. In voluntary public goods interactions, cooperators and defectors will coexist.

Author(s): 
Hauert, Christoph
De Monte, Silvia
Hofbauer, Josef
Sigmund, Karl

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