International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
Dermal fibroblasts from patients with the autosomal dominant cancer-prone disease Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (BCNS) exhibit a serum dependence, anchorage dependence and in vitro lifespan (about 20 population doublings or less) similar to those of fibroblasts from normal age-, race- and sex-matched controls.
Lymphocytes have a finite and predictable proliferative life span in culture similar to that observed in fibroblasts. In general, the senescence of human fibroblasts is inevitable and irreversible, but their proliferative life span can be extended by certain DNA tumor virus oncogenes, such as the large T antigen of the SV40 virus. Here, we show that human T lymphocytes (HTL) can be stably transfected with SV40 large T and that expression of T antigen extended the life span of T cell cultures.
Mutations in human CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Although leading to many experimental advances, this finding has not yet led to a clear understanding of the biochemical mechanism by which mutations in SOD promote the degeneration of motorneurons that causes this incurable paralytic disease.
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model for studying the genetics of ageing, with over 50 life-extension mutations known so far. However, little is known about the pathobiology of ageing in this species, limiting attempts to connect genotype with senescent phenotype. Using ultrastructural analysis and visualization of specific cell types with green fluorescent protein, we examined cell integrity in different tissues as the animal ages.
Molecular advances of the past decade have led to the discovery of a myriad of 'aging genes' (methuselah, Indy, InR, Chico, superoxide dismutase) that extend Drosophila lifespan by up to 85%. Despite this life extension, these mutants are no longer lived than at least some recently wild-caught strains. Typically, long-lived mutants are identified in relatively short-lived genetic backgrounds, and their effects are rarely tested in genetic backgrounds other than the one in which they were isolated or derived.
To obtain the large amount of T cells required for adoptive immunotherapy in a clinical setting, T-cell lifespan extension by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) transduction is of particular interest. However, constitutive expression of hTERT is associated with malignant transformation and thus warrants a detailed evaluation of the safety of hTERT-transduced T cells before clinical application.
BACKGROUND: Family studies and heritability estimates provide evidence for a genetic contribution to variation in the human life span. METHODS: We conducted a genome wide association study (Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip) for longevity-related traits in a community-based sample. We report on 5 longevity and aging traits in up to 1345 Framingham Study participants from 330 families.
Genetic studies in model organisms such as yeast, worms, flies, and mice leading to lifespan extension suggest that longevity is subject to regulation. In addition, various system-wide interventions in old animals can reverse features of aging. To better understand these processes, much effort has been put into the study of aging on a molecular level. In particular, genome-wide microarray analysis of differently aged individual organisms or tissues has been used to track the global expression changes that occur during normal aging.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The burden of protein misfolding is believed to contribute to aging. However, the links between adaptations to conditions associated with protein misfolding and resistance to the time-dependent attrition of cellular function remain poorly understood. We report that worms lacking aip-1, a homologue of mammalian AIRAP (arsenic-inducible proteasomal 19S regulatory particle-associated protein), are not only impaired in their ability to resist exposure to arsenite but also exhibit shortened lifespan and hypersensitivity to misfolding-prone proteins under normal laboratory conditions.
This article proposes that behavioural advancement during mammalian evolution had been in part mediated through extension of total developmental time. Such time extensions would have resulted in increased numbers of neuronal precursor cells, hence larger brains and a disproportionate increase in the neocortex. Larger neocortical areas enabled new connections to be formed during development and hence expansion of existing behavioural circuits.